Advertisement

Finite Element Simulations of Micro Turning of Ti-6Al-4V using PCD and Coated Carbide tools

  • Thangavel Jagadesh
  • G. L. SamuelEmail author
Original Contribution

Abstract

The demand for manufacturing axi-symmetric Ti-6Al-4V implants is increasing in biomedical applications and it involves micro turning process. To understand the micro turning process, in this work, a 3D finite element model has been developed for predicting the tool chip interface temperature, cutting, thrust and axial forces. Strain gradient effect has been included in the Johnson–Cook material model to represent the flow stress of the work material. To verify the simulation results, experiments have been conducted at four different feed rates and at three different cutting speeds. Since titanium alloy has low Young’s modulus, spring back effect is predominant for higher edge radius coated carbide tool which leads to the increase in the forces. Whereas, polycrystalline diamond (PCD) tool has smaller edge radius that leads to lesser forces and decrease in tool chip interface temperature due to high thermal conductivity. Tool chip interface temperature increases by increasing the cutting speed, however the increase is less for PCD tool as compared to the coated carbide tool. When uncut chip thickness decreases, there is an increase in specific cutting energy due to material strengthening effects. Surface roughness is higher for coated carbide tool due to ploughing effect when compared with PCD tool. The average prediction error of finite element model for cutting and thrust forces are 11.45 and 14.87 % respectively.

Keywords

Cutting forces Edge radius Interface temperature PCD tool Coated carbide tool 

References

  1. 1.
    H.J. Rack, J.I. Qazi, Titanium alloys for biomedical applications. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 26(8), 1269–1277 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    V.K. Jain, Micromanufacturing Processes (Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, London, New York, 2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    T. Özel, M. Sima, A.K. Srivastava, B. Kaftanoglu, Investigations on the effects of multi-layered coated inserts in machining Ti-6Al-4V alloy with experiments and finite element simulations. CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol. 59(1), 77–82 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    S.I. Jaffery, P. Mativenga, Wear mechanisms analysis for turning Ti-6Al-4V—towards the development of suitable tool coatings. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 58(5–8), 479–493 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    P.D. Hartung, B.M. Kramer, B.F. von Turkovich, Tool wear in titanium machining. CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol. 31(1), 75–80 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Shaw, The size effect in metal cutting. Sadhana 28(5), 875–896 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    S. Subbiah, S.N. Melkote, Effect of finite edge radius on ductile fracture ahead of the cutting tool edge in micro-cutting of Al2024-T3. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 474(1–2), 283–300 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    E.J.A. Armarego, R.H. Brown, On the size effect in metal cutting. Int. J. Prod. Res. 1(3), 75–99 (1961)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    K. Liu, S.N. Melkote, Material strengthening mechanisms and their contribution to size effect in micro-cutting. J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 128(3), 730–738 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    S.S. Joshi, S.N. Melkote, An explanation for the size-effect in machining using strain gradient plasticity. J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 126(4), 679–684 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M.S. Shunmugam, Machining challenges: macro to micro cutting. J. Inst. Eng. Ser. C 97(2), 223–241 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    P.M. Dixit, U.S. Dixit, Modeling of metal forming and machining processes: by finite element and soft computing methods (Springer, London, 2008)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    K.S. Woon, M. Rahman, K.S. Neo, K. Liu, The effect of tool edge radius on the contact phenomenon of tool-based micromachining. Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 48(12–13), 1395–1407 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    K. Woon, M. Rahman, The effect of tool edge radius on the chip formation behavior of tool-based micromachining. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 50(9–12), 961–977 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    T. Özel, Computational modelling of 3D turning: influence of edge micro-geometry on forces, stresses, friction and tool wear in PcBN tooling. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 209(11), 5167–5177 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. Sima, T. Özel, Modified material constitutive models for serrated chip formation simulations and experimental validation in machining of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 50(11), 943–960 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    U.S. Dixit, S.N. Joshi, J.P. Davim, Incorporation of material behavior in modeling of metal forming and machining processes: a review. Mater. Des. 32(7), 3655–3670 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    T. Özel, T. Thepsonthi, D. Ulutan, B. Kaftanoğlu, Experiments and finite element simulations on micro-milling of Ti-6Al-4V alloy with uncoated and cBN coated micro-tools. CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol. 60(1), 85–88 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    T. Thepsonthi, T. Özel, 3-D finite element process simulation of micro-end milling Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy: experimental validations on chip flow and tool wear. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 221, 128–145 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    N. Shen, H. Ding, Thermo-mechanical coupled analysis of laser-assisted mechanical micromilling of difficult-to-machine metal alloys used for bio-implant. Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf. 14(10), 1677–1685 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    G.R. Johnson, W.H. Cook, Fracture characteristics of three metals subjected to various strains, strain rates, temperatures and pressures. Eng. Fract. Mech. 21(1), 31–48 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    D. Umbrello, Finite element simulation of conventional and high speed machining of Ti6Al4V alloy. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 196(1–3), 79–87 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    W.-S. Lee, C.-F. Lin, High-temperature deformation behaviour of Ti6Al4V alloy evaluated by high strain-rate compression tests. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 75(1–3), 127–136 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    I. Asm, Materials and coatings for medical devices: cardiovascular (ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, USA, 2009)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    X. Lai, H. Li, C. Li, Z. Lin, J. Ni, Modelling and analysis of micro scale milling considering size effect, micro cutter edge radius and minimum chip thickness. Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 48(1), 1–14 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    N. Tounsi, J. Vincenti, A. Otho, M.A. Elbestawi, From the basic mechanics of orthogonal metal cutting toward the identification of the constitutive equation. Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 42(12), 1373–1383 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    S. Rao, M.S. Shunmugam, Analytical modeling of micro end-milling forces with edge radius and material strengthening effects. Mach. Sci. Technol. 16(2), 205–227 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    T. Moriwaki, A. Horiuchi, K. Okuda, Effect of cutting heat on machining accuracy in ultra-precision diamond turning. CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol. 39(1), 81–84 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Y.C. Yen, A. Jain, P. Chigurupati, W.T. Wu, T. Altan, Computer simulation of orthogonal cutting using a tool with multiple coatings. Mach. Sci. Technol. 8(2), 305–326 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    T. Thepsonthi, T. Özel, Finite element simulation of micro-end milling titanium alloy: comparison of viscoplastic and elasto-viscoplastic models. Proc. NAMRI/SME 41, 350–357 (2013)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Z.P. Wan, Y.E. Zhu, H.W. Liu, Y. Tang, Microstructure evolution of adiabatic shear bands and mechanisms of saw-tooth chip formation in machining Ti6Al4V. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 531, 155–163 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Institution of Engineers (India) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology MadrasChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations