Impact of TCPS, SMES and DFIG on Load Frequency Control of Nonlinear Power System Using Differential Evolution Algorithm

  • A. KumarEmail author
  • S. Shuhag
Original Contribution


In recent times, wind power is increasingly being integrated in the existing power system network for well-known reasons, but due to unpredictable variations in wind speed, the load frequency control (LFC) of such power systems becomes a difficult task. This paper addresses the problem of LFC of a multi-source hydrothermal nonlinear power system having wind power penetration. Differential evolution (DE) algorithm has been used to optimally tune the proportional, integral and derivative controller used for LFC in the power system subjected to fluctuations of wind power and load. The reheat and generation rate constraints nonlinearities have been considered appropriately for both areas. Besides, the impact of thyristor-controlled phase shifter (TCPS) and superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) on the LFC performance has been analyzed with the parameters of TCPS and SMES being tuned using DE algorithm. The system has been investigated for various operating conditions including the weak grid condition to establish the effectiveness of the proposed approach for wide variations in system conditions. The performance is analyzed and discussed in respect of frequency and tie-line power deviations, peak overshoot, settling time, and value of performance index. Further, robustness of the system is investigated by varying the system parameters from − 50 to + 50% in steps of 25% and step load disturbance from 1 to 20% in steps of 5%. Modeling and simulations are carried out using MATLAB/Simulink® to demonstrate the effectiveness of the DE algorithm.


Load frequency control (LFC) Differential evolution (DE) Doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) Thyristor-controlled phase shifter (TCPS) 


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Copyright information

© The Institution of Engineers (India) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Electrical Engineering DepartmentNIT KurukshetraKurukshetraIndia

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