Study of Energy Use and CO2 Emissions in the Manufacturing of Clinker and Cement

  • Sanoop Prakasan
  • Sivakumar PalaniappanEmail author
  • Ravindra Gettu
Case Study


Cement is one of the most widely used materials in construction. This study presents a process-wise evaluation of energy use and CO2 emissions for clinker, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC) using the principles of life-cycle assessment. Two cement plants located in India are considered as typical case studies. The gate-to-gate system boundary condition is considered. The energy use for clinker is found to be 3990 and 3626 MJ/ton for case studies 1 and 2, respectively. The associated CO2 emissions for clinker are 849 and 868 kg CO2/ton. The energy use for OPC is 4015 and 3821 MJ/ton for case studies 1 and 2, respectively. The related CO2 emissions are 802 and 855 kg CO2/ton. The energy use for PPC is 3077 and 2733 MJ/ton for case studies 1 and 2, respectively. The associated CO2 emissions are 606 and 595 kg CO2/ton. It is observed that the energy use and CO2 emission of PPC are at least 20% less compared to OPC. The results are compared with five geographical regions across the world.


Embodied energy Embodied CO2 Life-cycle assessment Clinker Ordinary Portland Cement Portland Pozzolana Cement 



The financial support provided by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (Project Number ‘7F-08527.02.01’) is acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© The Institution of Engineers (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sanoop Prakasan
    • 1
  • Sivakumar Palaniappan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ravindra Gettu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology MadrasChennaiIndia

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