Intermittent Multi-column Sand Filter: A Unique Solution to Multiple Applications

  • Ajay Kumar VashishtEmail author
  • Prem Ranjan
Original Contribution


Management of storm runoff is one of the ways to reduce stress on the existing freshwater resources. However, soil erosion and/or the operational steps like its trapping, conveyance, and storage lead to its mixing with foreign matter (inorganic/organic). Thus, filtration is an essential step before its use for various applications, but every application of water does not warrant its potable quality. The filtration efficiency of any porous medium increases with increase in the passing of cumulative volume of raw water, and the response of medium with finer size granules is quicker than the medium with larger size granules. The need of a filter having the flexibility to provide water of different qualities leads to the development of a newly designed intermittent multi-column filter whose different columns were containing graded sand granules. The experimental results showed that the multi-column filter removed the turbid matter in the range of 61–93% for the passing of net 2189 l of raw water. The filtrate from different columns can be regulated at any stage depending upon the application requirement. It has the ability to reduce the turbidity of raw water below the minimum standard prescribed for injecting in the freshwater aquifers, according to which the water turbidity should be less than or equal to two nephelometric turbidity units.


Graded sand Multi-column sand filter Turbidity removal efficiency Intermittent filtration 



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Copyright information

© The Institution of Engineers (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Agricultural Engineering and Post-Harvest TechnologyCAU (Imphal)RanipoolIndia

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