Advertisement

Ecological Determinants of Wood-Rotting Fungal Diversity and First Report of Favolaschia calocera, an Invasive Species from India

  • Kuno ChuzhoEmail author
  • Mamtaj S. Dkhar
Research Article
  • 43 Downloads

Abstract

The present investigation was carried out in Phek district, Nagaland, on seasonal basis for a period of 2 years from December 2014 to November 2016. A total of 56 wood-rotting fungi were identified. Among these, Favolaschia calocera R. Heim is reported for the first time from India. It belongs to the family Marasmiaceae. Highest number of wood-rotting fungi and the species abundance were recorded during summer (39 species and 53.45%, respectively). Maximum number of wood-rotting fungi was supported by logs (34 species). Based on decay stages of wood, decay stage III harbored the highest number of wood-rotting fungi (32 species). The number of species occurring on the sapwood and on bark was equal (23 each) and 10 were common to both. The pH and percentage moisture content of the hosts ranged from 2.88 to 6.57 and 10 to 58, respectively. Majority of wood-rotting fungi were collected from hosts growing under light-exposed condition (39 species) than those growing under shaded condition, whereas eight species were found growing under both the conditions. It was observed that species growing under shaded condition preferred later stages of wood decay (decay stages IV and V) and higher moisture content (above 30%), irrespective of the types and pH of the hosts. The present study provides baseline information on the ecology of wood-rotting fungal species.

Keywords

Environmental variables Favolaschia calocera R. Heim Nagaland Host characteristics Principal component analysis (PCA) Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors genuinely thanked Dr. N.S.K. Harsh, Rtd. Scientist G, FRI, Dehradun and Dr. Manoj Kumar, Technical Officer, FRI, Dehradun, for helping in identification of species. They are also thankful to the Centre for Advanced Studies in Botany, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong and DBT, Government of India for providing laboratory facilities. The first author is thankful to University Grants Commission for providing financial assistance in the form of NFHE-ST fellowship.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflict of interest to publish this manuscript.

References

  1. 1.
    Berg B, Laskowski R (2005) A guide to carbon and nutrient turnover. Adv Ecol Res 38:1–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gilbertoni TB, Santos PJP, Cavaleanti AMQ (2007) Ecological aspects of Aphyllophorales in the Atlantic rain forest in North Brazil. Fungal Divers 25:49–67Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Adarsh CK, Kumar V, Vidyasagaran K, Ganesh PN (2015) Decomposition of wood polypore fungi in the tropics—Biological, ecological and environmental factors—a case study. Res J Agric For Sci 3:15–37Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kuffer N, Senn-Irlet B (2005) Diversity and ecology of wood-inhabiting aphyllophoroid basidiomycetes on fallen woody debris in various forest types in Switzerland. Mycol Prog 4:77–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ho WH, Yanna, Hyde KD, Hodgkiss IJ (2002) Seasonality and sequential occurrence of fungi on wood submerged in Tia Po Kau forest stream, Hong Kong. Fungal Divers 10:21–43Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chadoz RL, Fetcher N (1984) Photosynthetic light environment in a lowland tropical rain forest in Costa Rica. J Ecol 72:553–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hatoiri T (2005) Diversity of wood-inhabiting polypores in temperate forests with different vegetation types in Japan. Fungal Divers 18:73–88Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lyngdoh A (2014) Diversity of wood-rotting macrofungi of East Khasi Hills and decay potential of some selected species. Ph.D. thesis, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bassler C, Muller J, Dziock F, Brandl R (2010) Effects of resource availability and climate on the diversity of wood-decaying fungi. J Ecol 98:822–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Heilmann-Clausen J, Christensen M (2003) Fungal diversity on decaying beech logs-implications for sustainable forestry. Biodivers Conserv 12:953–973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pouska V, Leps J, Svoboda M, Lepsova A (2011) How do log characteristics influence the occurrence of wood fungi in a mountain spruce forest? Fungal Ecol 4:201–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Boddy L (1983) The effects of temperature and water potential on growth rate of wood-rotting basidiomycetes. Trans Br Mycol Soc 80:141–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Boddy L (2001) Fungal community ecology and wood decomposition process in Angiosperms: from standing tree to complete decay of coarse woody debris. Ecol Bull 49:43–56Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mueller GM, Gerald FB, Mercedes SF (2004) Biodiversity of fungi: inventory and monitoring methods. Elsevier Academic Press, Amsterdam, pp 1–777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cain SA (1938) The species area curve. Contribution from the Botanical Laboratory, The University of Tennessee. N Ser. No. 23, pp 573–581Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bakshi BK (1966) Indian Polyporaceae (on trees and timber). Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, pp 1–246Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ryvarden L, Johansen I (1980) A preliminary polypore flora of East Africa. Fungiflora, Oslo, pp 1–636Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nunez M, Ryvarden L (2000) East Asian polypores—vol 1 (Ganodermataceae and Hymenochaetaceae). Synopsis fungorum 13. Funfiflora, Oslo, pp 1–168Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nunez M, Ryvarden L (2001) East Asian polypores—vol 2 (Polyporaceae). Synopsis fungorum 14. Funfiflora, Oslo, pp 170–522Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sithole B (2005) New method of measuring the pH of wood chips. In: 59th Appita conference, Auckland, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kenney N, Brodic E, Connoly J, Clipson N (2006) Seasonal influences on fungal community structure in unimproved and improved upland grassland soils. Can J Microbiol 52:689–694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yamashita S, Hattori T, Abe H (2010) Host preference and species richness of wood-inhabiting aphyllophoraceous fungi in a cool temperate area of Japan. Mycologia 102:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Iqbal M, Vidyasagaran K, Ganesh N (2017) Influence of substrate features on distribution of polypores (Fungi—Basidiomycota) in central part of Peechi Vazhani Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala, India. J Threat Taxa 9:9689–9699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Choeyklin R, Hattori T, Jaritkhuan S, Jones EBC (2009) Occurrence of polypores on bamboo culms in Thailand. Fungal Divers 36:121–128Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Olsson J, Jonsson BG, Hjalten J, Ericson L (2011) Addition of coarse woody debris—the early fungal succession on Picea abies logs in managed forests and reserves. Biol Conserv 144:1100–1110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Heim R (1945) Les agarics tropicaux a hymenium tubule (Madagascar, Cote d’Ivoire, Guinee, Antilles, Insulinde). Rev Mycol 10:3–61Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Robinson R (2013) First record of Favolaschia calocera in Western Australia. Aust Mycol 31:41–43Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Vizzini A, Zotti M, Mello A (2009) Alien fungal species distribution: the study case of Favolaschia calocera. Biol Invasions 11:417–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pradeep CK, Vrinda KB, Varghese SP (2008) Favolaschia—a new genus record for India. Mushroom Res 17:67–68Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Acharya K, Pradhan P, Dutta AK (2014) Favolaschia—a new genus record for Eastern India. Indian For 140:639–640Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The National Academy of Sciences, India 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Microbial Ecology Laboratory, Centre for Advanced Studies in BotanyNorth-Eastern Hill UniversityShillongIndia

Personalised recommendations