Advertisement

Optimization of a Process for Preparation of Base Wine for Cider Vinegar Production

  • Vinod K. Joshi
  • Rakesh Sharma
  • Vikas Kumar
  • Deepti Joshi
Research Article
  • 10 Downloads

Abstract

Apple juice is used to prepare cider vinegar a traditional fermented product consumed world over. An attempt has been made to optimize the alcoholic fermentation of apple juice by Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus UCD 595 for subsequent acetic acid fermentation to prepare cider vinegar, with respect to initial concentration of TSS, DAHP and sulfur dioxide content, using RSM. It was found that the fermentability of the different runs varied according to the initial sugar and DAHP concentration. The optimum base wine quality characteristics: TSS (4.03 °B), rate of fermentation (0.42 °Brix/24 h), ethanol (6.05%), titratable acidity (0.43%), volatile acidity (0.021%), phenolics (149.76 mg/100 g), pH (3.43), reducing sugars (107.88 mg/100 gm), total sugars (0.377%) and residual sulfur dioxide (28.77 ppm) with 0.837 desirability, were obtained using 14 °B initial TSS, 0.1% DAHP and 50 ppm sulfur dioxide. Verification experiments were conducted to compare predicted and actual values, which revealed near concurrence among them; confirming that models used were capable of reasonably and accurately predicting the dependent variables. Hence, these conditions are considered optimum for the alcoholic fermentation to produce a desirable level of alcohol in the shortest time for subsequent conversion into cider vinegar by acetic acid fermentation.

Keywords

Apple Cider Wine Vinegar Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus UCD 595 DAHP Sulfur dioxide 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are thankful to the Department of Science and Technology (DST), India, and Head, Department of Food Science and Technology, Dr. Y S Parmar UHF Nauni, Solan (HP), India, for providing infrastructural facility and financial support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding publication of this paper.

References

  1. 1.
    Rosma A, Nadiah ASH, Raj A, Tanasupawat S, Sharma S, Joshi VK (2016) Acetic acid fermented products. In: Joshi VK (ed) Indigenous fermented foods of South Asia. CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, pp 597–644Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Joshi VK, Thakur NS (2000) Vinegar: composition and production. In: Joshi VK, Verma LR (eds) Postharvest technology of fruits and vegetables. The Indus Publications, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Saha P, Banerjee S (2013) Optimization of process parameters for vinegar production using banana fermentation. Int J Res Eng Technol 2:501–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dias DR, Silva MS, de Souza AC, Magalhães-Guedes KT, de Rezende Ribeiro FS, Schwan RF (2016) Vinegar production from jabuticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba) fruit using immobilized acetic acid bacteria. Food Technol Biotechnol 54:351–359CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Joshi VK, Sharma S (2009) Cider vinegar. In: Solieri L, Giudici P (eds) Vinegars of the world. Springer, MilanGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ebner H (1982) Vinegar. In: Reed G (ed) Prescott and Dunn’s industrial microbiology. AVI Publishing Co., Westport, pp 802–834Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lea AGH (1988) Cider vinegar. In: Downing DL (ed) Processed apple products. Van Nosand Reinhold, New York, pp 279–301Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Budak NH, Kumbul DD, Savas CM, Seydim AC, Kok TT, Ciris MI, Guzel-Seydim ZB (2011) Effects of apple cider vinegars produced with different techniques on blood lipids in high-cholesterol-fed rats. J Agric Food Chem 59:6638–6644CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mitrou P, Petsion E, Papakonstantinue E, Maraton E, Lambadian V, Dimitriadis P, Spanocidi F, Raptis SA, Dimitriodis G (2015) The role of acetic acid on glucose uptake and blood flow rates in the skeletal muscle in humans with impaired glucose tolerance. Eur J Clin Nutr 69:734–739CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Okabe S, Okamoto T, Rhao CM, Chen D, Matsui H (2014) Acetic acid induces cell death: an in vitro study using normal rat gastric mucosal cell line and rat and human gastric cancer and mesothelioma cell lines. J Gastroen Hepatol 29(S4):65–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Morales ML, González GA, Casas JA, Troncoso AM (2001) Multivariate analysis of commercial and laboratory produced Sherry wine vinegars: influence of acetification and aging. Eur Food Res Technol 212:676–682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tesfaye W, Morales ML, Garcia-Parrilla MC, Troncoso AM (2002) Wine vinegar: technology, authenticity and quality evaluation. Trends Food Sci Technol 13:12–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Štornik A, Skok B, Trček J (2016) Comparison of cultivable acetic acid bacterial microbiota in organic and conventional apple cider vinegar. Food Technol Biotechnol 54:113–119CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Joshi VK, Sandhu DK, Attri BL, Walia RK (1991) Cider preparation from apple juice concentrate and its consumer acceptability. Indian J Hortic 48:321–327Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Joshi VK, Sandhu DK (1994) Influence of juice contents on quality of apple wine prepared from apple juice concentrate. Res Ind 39:250–252Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Joshi VK, Sharma SK (1994) Effect of method of must preparation and initial sugar levels on the quality of apricot wine. Res Ind 39:255–257Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Joshi VK, Sharma SK (1995) Comparative fermentation behaviour, physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of plum wine as effected by type of preservative. Chem Mikrobiol Technol Lebensm 17:45–53Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Joshi VK, Sharma S, Devi MP (2009) Influence of different yeast strains on fermentation behaviour, physico-chemical and sensory qualities of plum wine. Nat Prod Radiance 8:445–451Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Joshi VK (1997) Fruit wines. Directorate of Extension Education, Dr Y S Parmar UHF, Nauni-Solan, H.P. IndiaGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    AOAC (1984) Official methods of analysis. In: Hortwitz W (ed) Association of official analytical chemists, 14th edn. AOAC, Washington, DC, p 1015Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Joshi VK, Kumar V (2017) Influence of different sugar sources, nitrogen sources and inocula on the quality characteristics of apple tea wine. J Inst Brew 123:268–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Caputi A, Ueda M, Brown J (1968) Spectrophotometer determination of ethanol in wine. Am J Enol Vitic 26:201–207Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Amerine MA, Kunkee KE, Ough CS, Singleton VL, Webb AD (1980) Technology of wine making. AVI, WestportGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ranganna S (1997) Handbook of analysis and quality control for fruit and vegetable products. Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Thimmaiah SR (1999) Standard methods of biochemical analysis. Kayani Publishers, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Joshi VK, Sandhu DK, Thakur NS (1999) Fruit based alcoholic beverages. In: Joshi VK, Pandey A (eds) Biotechnology: food fermentation. Educational Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi, pp 647–744Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Joshi VK, Bhutani VP, Sharma RC (1990) The effect of dilution and addition of nitrogen source on chemical, mineral, and sensory qualities of wild apricot wine. Am J Enol Viticult 41:229–231Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zoecklein BW, Fugelsang KC, Gump BH, Nury FS (1995) Wine analysis and production. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Aberl A, Coelhan M (2013) Determination of sulfur dioxide in wine using headspace gas chromatography and electron capture detection. Food Addit Contam 30:226–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The National Academy of Sciences, India 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food Science and TechnologyDr. YS Parmar University of Horticulture and ForestrySolanIndia
  2. 2.Department of Food Technology and Nutrition, School of AgricultureLovely Professional UniversityPhagwaraIndia

Personalised recommendations