Detection of Chromosomal AmpC, bla CTX-M in Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli in Seafood Processing Effluent
- 82 Downloads
The higher incidence of extended spectrum of beta lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) in various community triggers to investigate the ESBL prevalence in seafood and its environment. A total of 24 fish processing effluent samples were collected fortnightly during January 2015–Dec 2015 and screened for ESBL producing E. coli. Twenty-eight E. coli strains were subjected to antibiogram and minimum inhibitory concentration. The ESBL production was tested using ready-made Brilliance ESBL agar (# PO5302, Oxoid) and ready to use minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) strips, Triple ESBL detection Ezy MIC™ strip and ESBL and AmpC detection strip. Out of 28 isolates, four isolates of E. coli were confirmed as ESBL producers and expressed resistance to antimicrobial agents like Cefuroxime, Amoxyclav, Ceftizoxime, Cefotaxime and Cefoperazone. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay confirmed the genes responsible for resistance were bla CTX-M families (592 bp) and Chromosomal AmpC (191 bp). The CTX-M genes have the ability to hydrolyze the Cefotoxime and Ceftazidime antimicrobials and are currently one of the largest groups of beta-lactamases. AmpC gene can be chromosomal or plasmid mediated and confers resistance to Cephalothin, Cefazolin, Cefoxitin and it also mediates resistance to beta-lactamase inhibitors. The present investigation shows proliferation of clinically evolved multi drug resistant bacteria such as ESBL producing E. coli into non clinical settings such as fisheries. It is further suggested that fecal contamination as well as unhygienic treatment of fish processing waste followed by disposal to the surrounding environment may act as the potential source of contamination.
KeywordsCephalosporin Escherichia coli Extended spectrum beta lactamase Multidrug resistant Effluent Seafood
The authors are thankful to the Director, ICAR- CIFT, Cochin, Kerala for providing the necessary facilities and fund to carry out this research work. We duly acknowledge the lab work assisted by the technical and supporting staff of the Centre. It’s further stating that all persons who meet authorship criteria are listed as authors, and all authors certify that they have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content, including participation in the concept, design, analysis, writing, or revision of the manuscript. Furthermore, each author certifies that this material or similar material has not been and will not be submitted to or published in any other publication. The work presented in the article has been carried out in an ethical way.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
It’s further stating that all persons who meet authorship criteria are listed as authors, and all authors certify that they have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content, including participation in the concept, design, analysis, writing, or revision of the manuscript. Furthermore, each author certifies that this material or similar material has not been and will not be submitted to or published in any other publication.The authors whose names are listed in the manuscript certify that they have NO affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest or non-financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.
- 1.WHO (World Health Organization) (2014) Antimicrobial resistance: global report on surveillance 2014. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- 3.Manoharan A, Premalatha K, Chatterjee S, Mathai D, SARI Study Group (2011) Correlation of TEM, SHV and extended-spectrum beta lactamases among Entrobacteriaceae with their in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. Indian J Med Microbiol 29(2):161–164. doi: 10.4103/0255-0857.81799 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 5.Kumar D, Singh AK, Mohammad RA, Chander Y (2014) Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli from various clinical samples. Infect Dis 7:1–8Google Scholar
- 6.European centre for disease prevention and control (2010) Antimicrobial resistance surveillance in Europe 2009. In: Annual Report of the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net). ECDC, StockholmGoogle Scholar
- 7.Sharma J, Sharma M, Ray P (2009) Detection of TEM & SHV genes in Escherichia coli & Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in a tertiary care hospital from India. Indian J Med Res 132:332–336Google Scholar
- 8.Rayamajhi N, Kang SG, Lee DY, Kang ML, Lee SI, Park KY, Lee HS, Yoo HS (2008) Characterization of TEM-, SHV- and AmpC-type β-lactamases from cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolated from swine. Int J Food Microbiol 124:183–187. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2008.03.009 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 12.Kang HY, Jeong YS, Oh JH (2005) Characterization of antimicrobial resistance and class 1 integrons found in Escherichia coli isolates from humans and animals in Korea hospital prevalence and susceptibility patterns. Rev Infect Dis 10(4):867–878Google Scholar
- 14.CLSI (2014) Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing: twenty- fourth informational supplement. In: CLSI document M 100-S25, Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PAGoogle Scholar
- 17.Schaufler K, Bethe A, Lubke-Becker A, Ewers C, Kohn B, Wieler LH, Guenther S (2015) Putative connection between zoonotic multi resistant extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in dog feces from a veterinary campus and clinical isolates from dogs. Infect Ecol Epidemiol. doi: 10.3402/iee.v5.25334 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 19.Sun Y, Zeng Z, Chen S, Ma J, He L, Liu Y, Deng Y, Lei T, Zhao J, Liu JH (2010) High prevalence of bla CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes in Escherichia coli isolates from pets and emergence of CTX-M-64 in China. Clin Microbiol Infect 16:1475–1481. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2010.03127.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 20.Horton et al (2011) Fecal carriage and shedding density of CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in cattle, chickens, and pigs: implications for environmental contamination and food production. Appl Environ Microbiol 77(11):3715–3719. doi: 10.1128/AEM.02831-10 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 24.Wani KA, Thakur MA, Fayaz AS, Fomdia B, Gulnaz B, Maroof P (2009) Extended spectrum β-lactamase mediated resistance in Escherichia coli in a Tertiary care hospital. Int J Health Sci 3(2):155–163Google Scholar
- 25.Galvin S, Boyle F, Hickey P, Vellinga A, Morris D, Cormica M (2010) Enumeration and characterization of antimicrobial-resistant Eshcherichia coli bacteria in effluent from municipal, hospital, and secondary treatment facility sources. Appl Environ Microbiol 76:4772–4779CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 27.Ghafur AK (2010) An obituary-on the death of antibiotics! J Assoc Physician India 58:143–144Google Scholar