Acid and Heavy Metal Tolerant Bacillus sp. from Rat-Hole Coal Mines of Meghalaya, India
- 114 Downloads
Coal is a major natural resource of Northeast India and the indigenous process of coal mining known as rat-hole mining results in the pumped mine water being released to the nearby land and water bodies contaminating the area and destroying life forms due to acid mine drainage. The present study aimed at isolating acid and metal resistant bacteria from the rat-hole coal mines to assess their acid and metal tolerance isolated two Bacillus sp. with good tolerance to iron, cadmium and chromium which grew well at pH 5 and could remain viable up to pH 2 without any apparent growth. Growth experiments at pH 2–4 indicated the failure of the isolates to grow and produce colony though they survived metabolically viable. However the inoculum obtained from broth culture incubated for 72 h at pH 2–4 produced distinct colonies when plated in medium at pH 5. Bacillus subtilis subsp. inaquosorum SK22 showed comparatively higher maximum tolerable concentration (MTC) for iron in comparison to Bacillus cereus SK44. Both had the same MTC for both cadmium and chromium. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and maximum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was similar for cadmium and chromium for both the Bacillus sp. MIC and MBC for iron was higher in case of Bacillus subtilis subsp. inaquosorum SK22 than that of Bacillus cereus SK44. This higher resistance to acidic pH and high metal concentration indicated their potential to be good candidates for bioremediation of contaminated soil and water bodies affected by rat-hole mining and acid mine drainage.
KeywordsRat-hole mining Acid mine drainage Bacillus sp. Tolerance
The authors acknowledge the financial support received from the Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India (Sanction No. DBT/484/NE/TBP/2013 dated/9/4/2014).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
There is no conflict of interest for publication of this manuscript among the authors.
- 1.Swer S, Singh OP (2004) Status of water quality in coal mining areas of Meghalaya, India. In: Proceedings of the national seminar on environmental engineering, with special emphasis on mining environment (India). pp 1–9Google Scholar
- 2.Dasgupta S, Tiwari BK, Tripathi RS (2002) Coal mining in Jaintia hills, Meghalaya: an ecological perspective. In: Jaintia hills, a Meghalaya tribe: its environment, land and people. Reliance Publishing House, India, pp 121–128Google Scholar
- 4.Stumm W, Morgan JJ (1981) Aquatic chemistry: an introduction emphasizing chemical equilibria in natural waters. Wiley, New York, p 780Google Scholar
- 6.Rayment GE, Higginson FR (1992) Australian laboratory handbook of soil and water chemical methods, Australian soil and land survey handbook, vol 3. Inkata Press, Melbourne, pp 1–3Google Scholar
- 7.Gupta K, Chatterjee C, Gupta B (2012) Isolation and characterization of heavy metal tolerant Gram-positive bacteria with bioremedial properties from municipal waste rich soil of Kestopur canal (Kolkata), West Bengal, India. Biologia 65:827–836Google Scholar
- 10.Samanta A, Bera P, Khatun M, Sinha C, Pal P, Lalee A, Mandal A (2012) An investigation on heavy metal tolerance and antibiotic resistance properties of bacterial strain Bacillus sp. isolated from municipal waste. J Microbiol Biotech Res 2:178–189Google Scholar
- 11.Prescott LM, Harley JP (2002) Laboratory exercise in microbiology, 5th edn. Mc Graw-Hill Companies Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 12.Buchanan RM, Gibbons NE (1974) Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology, 8th edn. The Williams and Wilkins Company, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
- 13.Gunaseelan C, Ruban P (2011) Heavy metal resistance bacterium isolated from Krishna Godavari basin, Bay of Bengal. Int J Environ Sci 1:1856–1864Google Scholar
- 14.Pandit RJ, Patel B, Kunjadia PD, Nagee A (2013) Isolation, characterization and molecular identification of heavy metal resistant bacteria from industrial effluents, Amala-khadi-Ankleshwar, Gujarat. Int J Env Sci 3:1689–1699Google Scholar
- 19.Rajbanshi A (2008) Study on Heavy metal resistant bacteria in Guheswori sewage treatment plant. Our Nat 6:52–57Google Scholar