Advertisement

Development of Resistance in Two Wheat Cultivars Against Constant Fumigation of Ozone

  • Era Singh
  • Richa Rai
  • Bhanu Pandey
  • Madhoolika Agrawal
Research Article

Abstract

Tropospheric ozone (O3) has been recognized as the major threat for worldwide agriculture and wheat production will have a crucial bearing on food security in the coming decades. The present study was conducted to evaluate the response of two wheat cultivars (HUW 234 and HP 1209) at constant levels of elevated O3 and to compare results of the present open top chamber studies (OTC) with free air concentration studies (FACE). Wheat cultivars were exposed to 70 (T1) and 100 (T2) ppb O3 for 4 h daily from germination to maturity. Both the cultivars showed differential and negative responses on photosynthetic pigments, morphological characteristics and total biomass at different stages of sampling. Photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and photosynthetic efficiency were negatively affected by the exposure of O3 in both the cultivars. Allocation of biomass in different components of plants was observed to be diverse amongst the cultivars under different treatments resulted into the varied responses yield attributes. Exposure of O3 causes variation in quantity as well as quality of grains of both the cultivars with higher yield reduction in HP1209. Therefore, the findings of the experiments revealed that the continuous O3 exposure developed compensatory mechanism particularly reduced stomatal conductance, altered allocation pattern managed to maintain yield against O3, hence led to less reductions in yield was recorded as compared to OTCs and FACE experiments data.

Keywords

Ozone Triticum aestivum L. Growth Photosynthetic pigments Biomass Open top chambers Yield and quality 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are thankful to the Head of the Department of Botany for all the laboratory and field facilities and to the Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi and University Grant Commission, New Delhi for providing fellowships to RR and BP, respectively.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

There is no conflict of interest between authors of the present paper.

References

  1. 1.
    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2014) Fifth assessment report. http://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/index.shtml
  2. 2.
    Emberson LD, Buker P, Ashmore MR, Mills G, Jackson LS, Agrawal M, Atikuzzaman MD, Cinderby S, Engardt M, Jamir C, Kobayashi K, Oanh NTK, Quadir QF, Wahid AA (2009) Comparison of North-America and Asian exposure-response data for ozone effects on crop yields. Atmos Environ 43:1945–1953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brauer M, Amann M, Burnett RT, Cohen A, Dentener F, Ezzati M (2012) Exposure assessment for estimation of the global burden of disease attributable to outdoor air pollution. Environ Sci Technol 46:652–660CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Meehl GA, Stocker TF, Collins WD, Friedlingstein P, Gaye AT, Gregory JM, Kitoh A, Knutti R, Murphy JM, Noda A, Raper SCB, Watterson IG, Weaver AJ, Zhao ZC (2007) Global climate projections. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) Climate change the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USAGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dentener F, Stevenson D, Cofala J, Mechler R, Amann M, Bergamaschi P, Raes F, Derwent R (2005) The impact of air pollutant and methane emission controls on tropospheric ozone and radiative forcing: CTM calculations for the period 1990–2030. Atmos Chem 5:1731–1755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Debaje SB (2014) Estimated crop yield losses due to surface ozone exposure and economic damage in India. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21:7329–7338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tiwari S, Rai R, Agrawal M (2008) Annual and seasonal variations in tropospheric ozone concentrations around Varanasi. Int J Remote Sens 29:4499–4514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rai R, Agrawal M (2014) Assessment of competitive ability of two Indian wheat cultivars under ambient O3 at different developmental stages. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21:1039–1053CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sarkar A, Agrawal SB (2010) Elevated ozone and two modern wheat cultivars: an assessment of dose dependent sensitivity with respect to growth, reproductive and yield parameters. Environ Exp Bot 69:328–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Feng Z, Sun J, Wan W, Hu E, Calatayud V (2014) Evidence of widespread ozone-induced visible injury on plants in Beijing, China. Environ Pollut 193:296–301CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rai R, Agrawal M, Agrawal SB (2007) Assessment of yield losses in tropical wheat using open top chambers. Atmos Environ 41:9543–9554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sarkar A, Agrawal SB (2010) Identication of ozone stress in Indian rice through foliar injury and differential protein profile. Environ Monit Assess 161:205–215CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Betzelberger AM, Gillespie KM, Mcgrath JM, Robert PK, Nelson RL, Ainsworth E (2010) Effects of chronic elevated ozone concentration on antioxidant capacity, photosynthesis and seed yield of 10 soybean cultivars. Plant Cell Environ 33:1569–1581PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Feng Z, Pang J, Kobayashi K, Zhu J, Ort DR (2011) Differential responses in two varieties of winter wheat to elevated O3 concentration under fully open- air field conditions. Glob Change Biol 17:580–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cooley DR, Manning WJ (1988) The impact of O3 on assimilate partitioning in plants: a review. Environ Pollut 47:95–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Meyer U, Kollner B, Willenbrink J, Krause GHM (2000) Effects of different ozone exposure regimes on photosynthesis, assimilates and thousand grain weight in spring wheat. Agric Ecosyst Environ 78:49–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Black VJ, Stewart CA, Roberts JA, Black CR (2007) Ozone affects gas exchange, growth and reproductive development in Brassica campestris (Wisconsin Fast Plants). New Phytol 176:150–163CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Grantz D, Farrar A (1999) Ozone impacts on allometry and root hydraulic conductance are not mediated by source limitation for developmental age. J Exp Bot 51:919–927CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Singh E, Tiwari S, Agrawal M (2010) Variability in antioxidant and metabolite levels, growth and yield of two soybean varieties: an assessment of anticipated yield losses under projected elevation of ozone. Agric Ecosyst Environ 135:168–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fuhrer J, Lehnherr B, Moeri PB, Tschannen W, Shariat MH (1990) Effects of ozone on the grain composition of spring wheat grown in open top field chambers. Environ Pollut 65:181–192CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pleijel H, Danielsson H, Gelang J, Slid E, Sèllden G (1998) Growth stages dependence of the grain yield response to ozone in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Agric Ecosyst Environ 70:61–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pleijel H, Eriksen AB, Danielsson H, Bondesson N, Sèllden G (2006) Differential ozone sensitivity in an old and a modern Swedish wheat cultivar grain yield and quality, leaf chlorophyll and stomatal conductance. Environ Exp Bot 56:63–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mills G, Buse A, Gimeno B, Bermejo V, Holland M, Emberson L, Pleijel H (2007) A synthesis of AOT40-based response functions and critical levels of ozone for agricultural and horticultural crops. Atmos Environ 41:2630–2643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Maclachlan S, Zalik S (1963) Plastid structure, chlorophyll concentration and free amino acid composition of a chlorophyll mutant of barley. Can J Bot 41:1053–1062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Duxbury AC, Yentsch CS (1956) Plankton pigment monographs. J Mar Res 15:19–101Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hunt R (1982) Plant growth analysis. University Press, Baltimore, USAGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Reiling K, Davison AW (1992) Effects of a short ozone exposure given at different stages in the development of Plantago major L. New Phytol 121:643–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yu H, Wang J, Fang W, Yuan J, Yang Z (2006) Cadmium accumulation in different rice cultivars and screening for pollution-safe cultivars of rice. Sci Total Environ 370:302–309CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lowry OH, Rosenbrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ (1951) Protein measurement with folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193:265–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dubois M, Gilles KA, Hamilton JK, Roberts PA, Smith F (1956) Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Anal Chem 28:350–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ainsworth EA, Yendrek CR, Sitch S, Collins WJ, Emberson LD (2012) The effects of tropospheric ozone on net primary productivity and implications for climate change. Ann Rev Plant Biol 63:637–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Betzelberger AM, Yendrek CR, Sun J, Leisner CP, Nelson RL, Ort DR, Ainsworth E (2012) Ozone exposure response for U.S. soybean cultivars: linear reductions in photosynthetic potential, biomass and yield. Plant Physiol 160:1827–1839CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Härtel H, Grimm B (1998) Consequences of chlorophyll deficiency for leaf carotenoid composition in tobacco synthesizing glutamate 1-semialdehyde aminotransferase antisense RNA: dependency on developmental age and growth light. J Exp Bot 49:535–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Yuan X, Calatayud V, Jiang L, Manning WJ, Hayes F, Tian Y, Feng Z (2015) Assessing the effects of ambient ozone in China on snap bean genotypes by using ethylenediurea (EDU). Environ Pollut 205:199–208CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Maxwell K, Marrison JL, Leech MR, Griffiths H, Horton P (1999) Chloroplast acclimation in leaves of Guzmania monostachia in response to high light. Plant Physiol 121:89–95CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kitajima K, Hogan KP (2003) Increases of chlorophyll a/b ratios during acclimation of tropical woody seedlings to nitrogen limitation and high light. Plant Cell Environ 26:857–865CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Grantz DA, Gunn S, Vu HB (2006) O3 impacts on plant development: a meta-analysis of root/shoot allocation and growth. Plant Cell Environ 29:1193–1209CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Anten NPR, Werger MJA, Medina E (1998) Nitrogen distribution and leaf area indices in relation to photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency in savanna grasses. Plant Ecol 138:63–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bultynck L, Tersteege MW, Schortemeyer M, Poot P, Lamber H (2004) From individual lead elongation to whole shoot leaf area expansion: a companion of three Aegilops and two Triticum species. Ann Bot 94:99–108CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Drogoudi PD, Ashmore MR (2000) Does elevated ozone have differing effects in flowering and deblossomed strawberry? New Phytol 147:561–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Oksanen E, Holopainen T (2001) Responses of two birch (Betula pendula Roth) clones to different ozone profiles with similar AOT40 exposure. Atmos Environ 35:5245–5254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Baier M, Kandlbinder A, Golldack D, Dietz KJ (2005) Oxidative stress and ozone: perception, signalling and response. Plant Cell Environ 28:1012–1020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Samuelson LJ, Kelly JM, Mays PA, Edwards GS (1996) Growth and nutrition of Quercus rubra L. seedlings and mature trees after three seasons of ozone exposure. Environ Pollut 91:317–323CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Rai R, Agrawal M, Agrawal SB (2010) Threat to food security under current levels of ground level ozone: a case study for Indian cultivars of rice. Atmos Environ 44:4272–4282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Akhtar N, Yamaguchi M, Inada H, Hoshino D, Kondo T, Izuta T (2012) Effects of ozone on growth, yield and leaf gas exchange rates of two Bangladeshi cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Environ Pollut 158:1763–1767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Feng Z, Kobayashi K (2009) Assessing the impacts of current and future concentrations of surface ozone on crop yield with meta-analysis. Atmos Environ 43:1510–1519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rai R, Agrawal M, Agrawal SB (2011) Effects of ambient O3 on wheat during reproductive development: gas exchange, photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll fluorescence and carbohydrates. Photosynthetica 49:285–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Pleijel H, Skarby L, Wallin G, Sèllden G (1995) A process-oriented explanation of the nonlinear relationship between grain yield of wheat and ozone exposure. New Phytol 131:241–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Frei M, Kohno Y, Tietze S, Jekle M, Hussein MA, Becker T, Becker K (2012) The response of rice grain quality to ozone exposure during growth depends on ozone level and genotype. Environ Pollut 163:199–206CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gelang J, Sellden G, Younis S, Pleijel H (2001) Effects of ozone on biomass, non-structural carbohydrates and nitrogen in spring wheat with artificially manipulated source/sink ratio. Environ Exp Bot 46:155–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Pleijel H (2012) Effects of ozone on zinc and cadmium accumulation in wheat—dose–response functions and relationship with protein, grain yield, and harvest index. Ecol Evol 2:3186–3194CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Zhou X, Zhou J, Wang Y, Peng B, Zhu J, Yang L, Wang Y (2014) Elevated tropospheric ozone increased grain protein and amino acid content of a hybrid rice without manipulation by planting density. J Sci Food Agric 95:72–78CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Feng ZZ, Yao FF, Chen Z, Wang XK, Zheng QW, Fen ZW (2007) Response of gas exchange and yield components of field-grown Triticum aestivum L. to elevated ozone in China. Photosynthetica 45:441–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Zhu X, Feng Z, Sun T, Liu X, Tang H, Zhu J, Guo W, Kobayashi K (2011) Effects of elevated ozone concentration on yield of four Chinese cultivars of winter wheat under fully open-air field conditions. Glob Change Biol 17:2697–2706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wahid A (2006) Influence of atmospheric pollutants on agriculture in developing countries: a case study with three new varieties in Pakistan. Sci Total Environ 371:304–313CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The National Academy of Sciences, India 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Era Singh
    • 1
  • Richa Rai
    • 1
  • Bhanu Pandey
    • 1
  • Madhoolika Agrawal
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BotanyBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia

Personalised recommendations