Soil Testing Indices for Phosphorus Leaching in Selected Vertisol and Inceptisol of India
- 100 Downloads
Little information is available on P leaching potential of Indian soils. The degree of P saturation (DPS) relating the extractable P to the P sorption capacity governed by soil constituents (Al, Fe, Ca) has been widely used to predict the potential to adsorb or release P. The aim of the present study was to determine DPS in two major cultivable soils of India and to evaluate routine agronomic and environmental soil test P as indicators of P leaching through column leaching experiment with different levels of P fertilization. The results of the study showed the variation in leachate reactive P (RP) content which was significantly affected by P rates and increased significantly above threshold DPS values. For vertisol and inceptisol, threshold DPS Ol was 25.07 and 12.43%, DPSA.O. was 7.87 and 3.76%, and DPSM3 was 18.66 and 6.79%, respectively. The RP concentration showed a strong correlation with DPS and environmental soil test like 0.01 M CaCl2 and water extractable P (WEP) suggesting that soil 0.01 M CaCl2 and WEP can be used as surrogate for RP concentration for risk of P loss via leaching. Thus, the use of Olsen P, Mehlich 3 and ammonium oxalate P for calculating DPS provides reliable criteria for identifying soils having high risk of P loss to surface water bodies and works well in all soil types.
KeywordsInceptisol Vertisol Degree of phosphorus saturation Phosphorus Reactive phosphorus Leaching
Degree of P saturation
Olsen P/[Olsen P + Phosphorus Sortion Index (PSI)] × 100
Mehlich 3 P/[Mehlich 3 P (Ca + Mg)] × 100
Ammonium oxalate P/[Ammonium oxalate (Al + Fe)] × 100
Soil test P
The authors are thankful to Dr. K. K. Barman, Principal Scientist, DWSR, Jabalpur and Dr. B. S. Diwedi, Principal Scientist and Head, Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Divison, IARI, New Delhi, for soil sample collection.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
- 2.Muralidharudu Y, Reddy KS, Mandal BN, Rao AS, Singh KN, Sonekar S (2011) GIS based soil fertility maps of different states of India. All India coordinated research project on soil test crop response correlation. IISS, BhopalGoogle Scholar
- 6.Dinesh R, Srinivasan V, Hamza S, Anandaraj M (2014) Massive phosphorus accumulation in soils: Kerala’s continuing conundrum. Curr Sci 106(3):343–344Google Scholar
- 7.Nair VD (2014) Soil phosphorus saturation ratio of risk assessment in land use system. Front Environ Sci 2(6):1–4Google Scholar
- 8.Sims JT (2000) Soil test phosphorus: Olsen P. In: Pierzynski GM (ed) Methods of phosphorus analysis for soils, sediments, residuals, and waters. Southern cooperative series bulletin no. 396. North Carolina State University, Raleigh, pp 20–21Google Scholar
- 14.Olsen SR, Cole CV, Watanabe FS, Dean LA (1954) Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. In: USDA circular 939. USDA, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- 23.Zheng Z, Macleod JA (2005) Transformation and recovery of fertilizer phosphorus applied to five Quebec Humaquepts. Acta Agric Scand B Soil Plant Sci 55:170–176Google Scholar
- 25.Pierzynski GM, McDowell RW, Sims JT (2005) Chemistry, cycling, and potential movement of inorganic phosphorus in soils. In: Sims JT, Sharpley AN (eds) Phosphorus: agriculture and the environment. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, pp 53–86Google Scholar
- 26.USEPA (2010) Guidance for federal land management in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. In: EPA 841-R-10-002. USEPA, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- 28.Rashmi I (2013) Development of degree of phosphorus saturation indices for some selected soils of India. PhD Thesis, University of Agricultural Science, BangaloreGoogle Scholar
- 34.Li Y, Gao R, Yang R, Wei H, Li Y, Xiao H, Wu J (2013) Using a simple soil column method to evaluate soil phosphorus leaching risk. Clean Soil Air Water 41:1–8Google Scholar
- 40.Zang L, Tian G, Liang X, Liu J, Peng G (2011) Effect of water-dispersible colloids in manure on the transport of dissolved and colloidal phosphorus through soil column. Afri J agril Res 6(30):6369–6376Google Scholar