Incidence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter and Salmonella from Houseflies (Musca Domestica) in Kitchens, Farms, Hospitals and Slaughter Houses

  • Davood Ommi
  • Behsan Hemmatinezhad
  • Taghi Taktaz Hafshejani
  • Faham Khamesipour
Research Article


Carriage status of Campylobacter and Salmonella was investigated in houseflies in Shahrekord and Isfahan provinces of Iran. This was a longitudinal study conducted from June 2013 to May 2014. Flies were collected from household kitchens, animal farms, slaughter houses and hospitals and put in sample bottles filled with peptone water. Bacteria were isolated and DNA was extracted from bacterial isolates using a commercial kit. Confirmation of the organisms was carried out by polymerase chain reaction using primer sets for detection of these pathogens. Out of 600 houseflies 19.5 % (117/600) were positive for Campylobacter and 15.8 % (95/600) were positive for Salmonella organisms. The recovery frequencies of the two organisms in different locations were similar. Higher proportions of infected flies were obtained during summer whereas low proportions were obtained during winter of all the organisms (P < 0.05). The organisms had low to moderate resistance to different antimicrobial agents. It is concluded that houseflies do harbor antimicrobial resistant diarrheagenic pathogens including Campylobacter and Salmonella, more so during summer. The data support the importance of taking into account the houseflies in future plans aimed at stemming infections caused by these organisms.


Salmonella Campylobacter Antimicrobial resistance Houseflies Polymerase chain reaction Season Iran 



The authors would like to acknowledge the valuable contribution of Dr. Simbarashe Katsande and Dr. Erick V. G. Komba.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest with respect to the research, authorship and/or publication of this article.


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Copyright information

© The National Academy of Sciences, India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Davood Ommi
    • 1
  • Behsan Hemmatinezhad
    • 2
  • Taghi Taktaz Hafshejani
    • 3
  • Faham Khamesipour
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Functional Neurosurgery Research CenterShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Young Researchers and Elite Club, Shahrekord BranchIslamic Azad UniversityShahrekordIran
  3. 3.Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahrekord BranchIslamic Azad UniversityShahrekordIran
  4. 4.Cellular and Molecular Research CenterSabzevar University of Medical SciencesSabzevarIran

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