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Biofilm Inhibitory Effect of Spirulina platensis Extracts on Bacteria of Clinical Significance

  • Felix LewisOscar
  • Chari Nithya
  • Dhamodharan Bakkiyaraj
  • Manivel Arunkumar
  • Naiyf S. Alharbi
  • Nooruddin ThajuddinEmail author
Research Article

Abstract

Spirulina platensis is one of the most potential microalgae explored for antibacterial, antiviral and anti-cancerous properties. However, its antibiofilm potential has not been studied. Biofilms are of significant interest as they confer resistance towards antimicrobials and host immunity both in diverse group of bacteria. Exploring Spirulina towards the biofilm would give an easy way of treatment against bacterial pathogens. In this milieu, the antibiofilm potentials of organic extracts prepared from S. platensis was revealed. The results clearly showed that methanolic extract of S. platensis at a concentration of 100 ng mL−1 efficiently inhibited the biofilms of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (ATCC17802), Chromobacterium violaceum (ATCC 12742) and Vibrio alginolyticus (ATCC17749) about 90, 89 and 88 % respectively. Significant reduction in cell surface hydrophobicity was documented for Aeromonas hydrophila (MTCC1739), Escherichia coli (MTCC 739) and Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 96 and 2940). Besides the inhibition of extracellular polymeric substances in A. hydrophila (MTCC1739) and S. aureus (MTCC2940) was about 88 and 71 % respectively. The availability of Spirulina as nutritious food makes it as a foremost contender against bacterial biofilm. The present study reveals the antibiofilm potential of S. platensis against a broad spectrum of both Gram Positive and Gram Negative bacteria. S. platensis effectively inhibited the biofilm of Vibro spp., a major menace in aquaculture industries. Further characterization and purification of the active compounds could be a major remedy against biofilm forming bacteria.

Keywords

Biofilm S. platensis Antibiofilm Cell surface hydrophobicity Extracellular polymeric substances 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge DBT (BT/PR4815/AAQ/3/587/2012 and BT/PR6619/PBD/26/310/2012) for providing financial support. They are grateful to Mr. S. Thangaprabhakaran, Bioelixer, Thanjavur, India, for providing the Spirulina powder for nutritional supplement to S. platensis culture. The Deanship of Scientific Research, College of Science Research Centre, King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has also supported the work. Clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa gifted by Prof. S. Karutha Pandian, Department of Biotechnology, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, India has been thankfully acknowledged. Financial support provided to Chari Nithya by Department of Science and Technology, Government of India in the form DST INSPIRE faculty Scheme is thankfully acknowledged (funded by DST, GOI; Grant No. DST/inspire Faculty Award/2012 [IFA12-LSPA13].

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© The National Academy of Sciences, India 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Felix LewisOscar
    • 1
  • Chari Nithya
    • 1
  • Dhamodharan Bakkiyaraj
    • 1
  • Manivel Arunkumar
    • 1
  • Naiyf S. Alharbi
    • 2
  • Nooruddin Thajuddin
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Microbial Biodiversity and Bioenergy, Department of Microbiology, School of Life SciencesBharathidasan UniversityTiruchirappalliIndia
  2. 2.Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of ScienceKing Saud UniversityRiyadhKingdom of Saudi Arabia

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