Biofilm Inhibitory Effect of Spirulina platensis Extracts on Bacteria of Clinical Significance
- 429 Downloads
Spirulina platensis is one of the most potential microalgae explored for antibacterial, antiviral and anti-cancerous properties. However, its antibiofilm potential has not been studied. Biofilms are of significant interest as they confer resistance towards antimicrobials and host immunity both in diverse group of bacteria. Exploring Spirulina towards the biofilm would give an easy way of treatment against bacterial pathogens. In this milieu, the antibiofilm potentials of organic extracts prepared from S. platensis was revealed. The results clearly showed that methanolic extract of S. platensis at a concentration of 100 ng mL−1 efficiently inhibited the biofilms of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (ATCC17802), Chromobacterium violaceum (ATCC 12742) and Vibrio alginolyticus (ATCC17749) about 90, 89 and 88 % respectively. Significant reduction in cell surface hydrophobicity was documented for Aeromonas hydrophila (MTCC1739), Escherichia coli (MTCC 739) and Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 96 and 2940). Besides the inhibition of extracellular polymeric substances in A. hydrophila (MTCC1739) and S. aureus (MTCC2940) was about 88 and 71 % respectively. The availability of Spirulina as nutritious food makes it as a foremost contender against bacterial biofilm. The present study reveals the antibiofilm potential of S. platensis against a broad spectrum of both Gram Positive and Gram Negative bacteria. S. platensis effectively inhibited the biofilm of Vibro spp., a major menace in aquaculture industries. Further characterization and purification of the active compounds could be a major remedy against biofilm forming bacteria.
KeywordsBiofilm S. platensis Antibiofilm Cell surface hydrophobicity Extracellular polymeric substances
The authors gratefully acknowledge DBT (BT/PR4815/AAQ/3/587/2012 and BT/PR6619/PBD/26/310/2012) for providing financial support. They are grateful to Mr. S. Thangaprabhakaran, Bioelixer, Thanjavur, India, for providing the Spirulina powder for nutritional supplement to S. platensis culture. The Deanship of Scientific Research, College of Science Research Centre, King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has also supported the work. Clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa gifted by Prof. S. Karutha Pandian, Department of Biotechnology, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, India has been thankfully acknowledged. Financial support provided to Chari Nithya by Department of Science and Technology, Government of India in the form DST INSPIRE faculty Scheme is thankfully acknowledged (funded by DST, GOI; Grant No. DST/inspire Faculty Award/2012 [IFA12-LSPA13].
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 4.Kolenbrander PE, Palmer RJ Jr (2004) Human oral bacterial biofilms. In: Ghannoum MA, O’Toole GA (eds) Microbial biofilms. ASM Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- 7.Hall-Stoodley L, Hu FZ, Gieseke A, Nistico L, Nguyen D, Hayes J, Forbes M, Greenberg DP, Dice B, Burrows A, Wackym PA, Stoodley P, Post JC, Ehrlich GD, Kerschner JE (2006) Direct detection of bacterial biofilms on the middle-ear mucosa of children with chronic otitis media. JAMA 296:202–211CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 23.Vicente-García V, Ríos-Leal E, Calderón-Domínguez G, Cañizares-Villanueva RO, Olvera-Ramírez R (2004) Detection, isolation, and characterization of exopolysaccharide produced by a strain of Phormidium 94a isolated from an arid zone of Mexico. Biotechnol Bioeng 85(3):306–310CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 30.Castilloa S, Herediaa N, Arechiga-Carvajala E, García S (2014) Citrus extracts as inhibitors of quorum sensing. Biofilm Form Motil Campylobacter Jejuni Food Biotechnol 28:106–122Google Scholar
- 32.Marshall KC (1992) Biofilms: an overview of bacterial adhesion, activity, and control at surfaces. ASM News 58:202–207Google Scholar
- 34.Nithya C, LewisOscar F, Kanaga S, Kavitha R, Bakkiyaraj D, Arunkumar M, Alharbi NS, Chinnathambi A, Alharbi SA, Thajuddin N (2014) Biofilm inhibitory potential of Chlamydomonas sp. extract against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Algal Biomass Util 5(4):74–81Google Scholar