Advertisement

Non-thermal Therapeutic Applications of Light

  • Asheesh GuptaEmail author
  • Gaurav K. Keshri
  • Anju Yadav
Review Article
  • 35 Downloads

Abstract

Phototherapy or light-based treatment is emerging as a very promising biophysical, non-invasive or minimal invasive and non-traumatic healing modality. It includes photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT). PBM involves irradiation of injured tissue with photons mostly in the red and near-infrared region at relatively low-intensity (non-thermal). This light absorption causes photophysical and photochemical reactions, which in turn sets in various biological events like stimulation of cell growth, attenuation of inflammation, pain and recovery from damage. PDT makes use of photoactivated dye known as photosensitizer to kill multi-drug resistant microorganisms and cancer cells. Apart from investigations on their therapeutic efficacy, a lot of work is being carried out to generate a better understanding of the mechanisms of action of light-based therapy at the cellular and molecular levels, and downstream effector molecules. The present article provides a brief overview of the activity in this field with emphasis on the work carried out in the country.

Keywords

Antimicrobial Cancer Photobiomodulation Photodynamic therapy Skin Wound healing 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors are grateful to Dr. P. K. Gupta for his valuable comments on the manuscript and providing input on some of the work carried out at RRCAT, Indore and to Dr. K. K. Mahato, School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, India for providing inputs on the work carried out by his group.

References

  1. 1.
    Yadav A, Gupta A (2017) Non-invasive red and near-infrared wavelength-induced photobiomodulation: promoting impaired cutaneous wound healing. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 33:4–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gupta A, Avci P, Sadasivam M, Chandran R, Parizotto N, Vecchio D, de Melo WC, Dai T, Chiang LY, Hamblin MR (2013) Shining light on nanotechnology to help repair and regeneration. Biotechnol Adv 31:607–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gupta A, Hamblin MR (2013) History and fundamentals of low-level laser (light) therapy. In: Hamblin MR, Huang YY (eds) Handbook of photomedicine. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 43–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gupta A (2014) Wound repair therapies: pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. DRDO Technology Spectrum, New Delhi, pp 1–7Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hamblin MR (2017) Mechanisms and applications of the anti-inflammatory effects of photobiomodulation. AIMS Biophys 4:337–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Keshri GK, Gupta A, Yadav A, Sharma SK, Singh SB (2016) Photobiomodulation with pulsed and continuous wave near-infrared laser (810 nm, Al–Ga–As) augments dermal wound healing in immunosuppressed rats. PLoS ONE 11(11):e0166705.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0166705 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Passarella S, Karu T (2014) Absorption of monochromatic and narrow band radiation in the visible and near IR by both mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial photoacceptors results in photobiomodulation. J Photochem Photobiol B Biol 140:344–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Prabhu V, Rao SB, Rao NB, Aithal KB, Kumar P, Mahato KK (2010) Development and evaluation of fiber optic probe-based helium-neon low-level laser therapy system for tissue regeneration-an in vivo experimental study. Photochem Photobiol 86:1364–1372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Prabhu V, Rao SB, Chandra S, Kumar P, Rao L, Guddattu V, Satyamoorthy K, Mahato KK (2012) Spectroscopic and histological evaluation of wound healing progression following low-level laser therapy (LLLT). J Biophotonics 5:168–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Prabhu V, Rao SB, Fernandes EM, Rao ACK, Prasad K, Mahato KK (2014) Objective assessment of endogenous collagen in vivo during tissue repair by laser induced fluorescence. PLoS ONE 9(5):e98609.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098609 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gupta A, Dai T, Hamblin MR (2014) Effect of red and near infrared wavelengths on low-level laser (light) therapy induced healing of partial-thickness dermal abrasions in mice. Lasers Med Sci 29:257–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gupta A, Keshri GK, Yadav A, Gola S, Chauhan S, Salhan AK, Singh SB (2015) Superpulsed (Ga–As, 904 nm) low-level laser therapy (LLLT) attenuates inflammatory response and enhances healing of burn wounds. J Biophotonics 8:489–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hegde VN, Prabhu V, Rao SB, Chandra S, Kumar P, Satyamoorthy K, Mahato KK (2011) Effect of laser dose and treatment schedule on excision wound healing in diabetic mice. Photochem Photobiol 87:1433–1441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yadav A, Gupta A, Keshri GK, Verma S, Sharma SK, Singh SB (2016) Photobiomodulatory effects of superpulsed 904 nm laser therapy on bioenergetics status in burn wound healing. J Photochem Photobiol B Biol 162:77–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rathnakar B, Rao BS, Prabhu V, Chandra S, Mahato KK (2017) Laser-induced autofluorescence-based objective evaluation of burn tissue repair in mice. Lasers Med Sci.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-017-2371-y Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rathnakar B, Rao BS, Prabhu V, Chandra S, Rai S, Rao AC, Sharma M, Gupta PK, Mahato KK (2016) Photobiomodulatory response of low-power laser irradiation on burn tissue repair in mice. Lasers Med Sci 31:1741–1750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mathur RK, Sahu K, Saraf S, Patheja P, Khan F, Gupta PK (2017) Low-level laser therapy as an adjunct to conventional therapy in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Lasers Med Sci 32:275–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sahu K, Sharma M, Bansal H, Dube A, Gupta PK (2013) Topical photodynamic treatment with poly-l-lysine-chlorin p6 conjugate improves wound healing by reducing hyperinflammatory response in Pseudomonas aeruginosa-infected wounds of mice. Lasers Med Sci 28:465–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sahu K, Sharma M, Sharma P, Verma Y, Rao KD, Bansal H, Dube A, Gupta PK (2014) Effect of poly-l-lysine-chlorin P6-mediated antimicrobial photodynamic treatment on collagen restoration in bacteria-infected wounds. Photomed Laser Surg 32:23–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sahu K, Sharma M, Dube A, Gupta PK (2015) Topical antimicrobial photodynamic therapy improves angiogenesis in wounds of diabetic mice. Lasers Med Sci 30:1923–1929CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The National Academy of Sciences, India 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of PharmacologyDefence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences (DIPAS), DRDODelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations