National Academy Science Letters

, Volume 42, Issue 6, pp 455–458 | Cite as

Tillage Practices and Rabi Crops Affect Energetics of Rainfed Rice-Based Cropping System of Chhattisgarh

  • Tej Ram Banjara
  • G. P. Pali
  • Sushil KumarEmail author
Short Communication


In rice-based cropping system, intensive tillage operations, which consume a huge amount of energy in the form of fuel and labor, are carried out after harvesting of rice for growing the next crop. Modification in tillage practices may not only reduce energy consumption but also could make the system more dynamic and efficient. The present study involving four tillage practices and six different rabi crops was undertaken in strip plot design with three replications to understand the effect of tillage practices and rabi crops on the energetics of rainfed rice-based cropping system. Results of study clearly demonstrated that zero tillage direct drilling of seeds at 2nd days after harvesting of rice with toria and minimum tillage and line sowing of seeds at 3rd days after harvesting of rice with safflower recorded 40% less energy input and 59% more energy output, respectively, than farmer’s practice seeds and fertilizers broadcasting at 12th days after harvesting of rice with safflower. Among the tillage practices, zero tillage direct drilling of seeds at 2nd days after harvesting of rice recorded 63 and 74% higher energy productivity and energy intensity, respectively, over farmers practice. Among the rabi crops, significantly higher energy productivity, energy intensity and net energy (0.84 kg MJ−1, 6.74 MJ Rs−1 and 66.72 × 103 MJ ha−1, respectively) were recorded under safflower. With higher energy productivity and intensity, ZT direct drilling of seeds at 2nd DAH of rice and safflower was found best for the energetic management of rainfed rice-based cropping system of Chhattisgarh.


Rabi crops Tillage practices Cropping system Energy productivity Energy intensity Specific energy 



The authors are grateful to the Department of Agronomy, Indira Gandhi Agricultural University, Raipur, for providing necessary facilities for completing the experiment.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Anonymous (2015–16) Annual report. Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers’ Welfare, GOI, p 1Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dhar S, Das SK, Kumar S, Singh JB (2008) Effect of tillage and soil moisture conservation practices on crop yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and soil properties under rainfed conditions. Indian J Agric Sci 78(12):42–53Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Saharawat YS, Ladha JK, Pathak H, Gathala M, Chaudhary N, Jat ML (2012) Simulation of resource-conserving technologies on productivity, income and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in rice–wheat system. J Soil Sci Environ Manag 3:9–22Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jat ML, Gathala MK, Saharawat YS, Tetarwal JP, Gupta R, Singh Y (2013) Double no-till and permanent raised beds in maize–wheat rotation of north-western Indo Gangetic plains of India: effects on crop yields, water productivity, portability and soil physical properties. Field Crops Res 149:291–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Das TK, Bhattacharyya R, Sudhishri S et al (2014) Conservation agriculture in an irrigated cotton–wheat system of the western Indo-Gangetic plains: crop and water productivity and economic profitability. Field Crops Res 158:24–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Parihar CM, Jat SL, Singh AK, Jat ML (2011) Energy scenario and water and productivity of maize based cropping system under conservation agriculture practices in south Asia. In: Abstracts of 5th world congress on conservation agriculture, incorporating the 3rd farming system design conference held at Brisbane, Australia from 26th to 29th September, pp 144–150Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mittal NK, Mittal JP, Dhawn KC (1985) Research digest on energy requirement in agriculture sector (1971–82). ICAR/AICRP/ERA/85 (1), Ludhiana, pp 159–163Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gomez KA, Gomez AA (1984) Statistical procedures for agricultural research. Willey, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Choudhary RL, Bahera UK (2013) Effect of sequential tillage practices and N levels on energy relations and use–efficiencies of irrigation water and N in maize (Zea mays)-wheat (Triticum aestivum) cropping system. Indian J Agron 58(1):27–34Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Khaledian M, Mailhol JC, Ruelle P (2012) Yield and energy requirement of durum wheat under no-tillage and conventional tillage in the Mediterranean Climate. J Biol Environ Sci 6(16):59–65Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jha AK, Kewat ML, Upadhyay VB, Vishwakarma SK (2011) Effect of tillage and sowing methods on productivity, economics and energetic of rice (Oryza sativa)-wheat (Triticum aestivum) cropping system. Indian J Agron 56(1):35–40Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kumar B, Kerketta JK, Oraon PR (2016) Residual effect of tillage and nutrient management on production potential and energy budgeting of rice (Oryza sativa) under oat-rice cropping system. Int J Sci Environ and Technol 5(3):1730–1734Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Singh YP, Singh D, Tomar SS, Gupta RK (2013) Effect of time of pre-irrigation and tillage practices on wheat (Triticum aestivum) under pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan)—wheat cropping sequence. Indian J Agric Sci 83(12):17–21Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mishra JS, Singh VP (2012) Tillage and weed control effects on productivity of a dry seeded rice–wheat system on Vertisols in Central India. Soil Till Res 123:11–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yadav MR, Parihar CM, Jat SL et al (2016) Effect of long-term tillage and diversified crop rotations on nutrient uptake, profitability and energetic of maize (Zea mays) in north-western India. Indian J Agric Sci 86(6):43–49Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Honnali SN, Chittapur BM (2014) Efficient cropping systems and their energetics for sustainable irrigated tropical ecosystems. Indian J Agron 59(4):556–560Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mishra MM, Mohanty M, Gulati JML, Nand SS (2013) Evaluation of various rice (Oryza sativa) based sequences for enhanced productivity, profitability and energy efficiency in eastern plateau and hills zone of India. Indian J Agric Sci 83(12):79–84Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The National Academy of Sciences, India 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AgronomyInstitute of Agricultural Sciences, B.H.U.VaranasiIndia
  2. 2.Department of AgronomyIndira Gandhi Krishi VishwavidyalayaRaipurIndia
  3. 3.ICAR-Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Regional Research StationBhujIndia

Personalised recommendations