Advertisement

Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation

, Volume 49, Issue 1, pp 149–160 | Cite as

Design, fabrication and characterization of xanthan gum/liquid-loaded porous natural rubber film

  • Thawatchai PhaechamudEmail author
  • Nutdanai Lertsuphotvanit
  • Pongsathorn Issarayungyuen
  • Takron Chantadee
Original Article
  • 79 Downloads

Abstract

Porous natural rubber (NR) films were prepared with blocked natural rubber by solvent casting method using dichloromethane as the solvent. The various amount of xanthan gum (0–40 phr) was blended in 75 phr triethyl citrate or glycerin-loaded NR cast films. Xanthan gum markedly promoted the water sorption of these composite films. The proper compatibility of the component employed in these composite NR films was confirmed by X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. Although the porosity of composite NR films decreased when xanthan gum was added xanthan gum amount did not significantly affect the mechanical properties, wettability and degradability. The 20 phr xanthan gum was selected as the optimum amount to modify the liquid-loaded NR films for further as wound dressing.

Graphical abstract

Keywords

Natural rubber Xanthan gum Liquid loading Physicochemical characterization 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research work was kindly supported by the Thailand Research Fund (Grant No. RDG5650126). The authors would like to thank the Faculty of Pharmacy, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom and the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Thailand for their facilities and support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

Statement of human and animal rights

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

40005_2018_396_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (108 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 109 KB)

References

  1. ASTM International (2003) Standard test methods for vulcanized rubber and thermoplastic elastomers-tension D412. ASTM:West Conshohocken, PA, USA, vol 9Google Scholar
  2. Boonme P, Panrat K, Pichayakorn W (2014) Pseudolatex from STR 5L block rubber for drug delivery. Adv Mater Res 844:166–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ceulemans J, Vinckier I, Ludwig A (2002) The use of xanthan gum in an ophthalmic liquid dosage form: rheological characterization of the interaction with mucin. J Pharm Sci 91(4):1117–1127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dezfuli AR, Aravindram AS, Manjunath M, Genesh NS, Shailesh T (2012) Development and evaluation of transdermal films loaded with antihypertensive drug. Int J Pharm Bio Sci 3(3):559–569Google Scholar
  5. Dhopeshwarkar V, Zatz JL (1993) Evaluation of xanthan gum in the preparation of sustained release matrix tablets. Drug Dev Indus Pharm 19(9):999–1017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ferreira M, Mendonca RJ, Coutinho-Netto J, Mulato M (2009) Angiogenic properties of natural rubber latex biomembranes and the serum fraction of Hevea brasiliensis. Brazilian J Phys 39:564–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Giannouli P, Morris ER (2003) Cryogelation of xanthan. Food Hydrocoll 17:495–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Herculano RD, Alencar AA, Kinoshita A, Osvaldo N, Oliveira ON, Graeff CF (2011) On the release of metronidazole from natural rubber latex membranes. Mater Sci Eng C 31:272–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jadhav RT, Kasture PV, Gattani SG, Surana SJ (2009) Formulation and evaluation of transdermal films of diclofenac sodium. Int J PharmTech Res 1(4):1507–1511Google Scholar
  10. Juntuek P, Ruksakulpiwat C, Chumsamrong P, Ruksakulpiwat Y (2011) Comparison between mechanical and thermal properties of polylactic acid and natural rubber blend using calcium carbonate and vetiver grass fiber as fillers. Adv Mater Res 410:59–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Mi FL, Wu YB, Shyu SS, Chao AC, Lai JY, Su CC (2003) Asymmetric chitosan membranes prepared by dry/wet phase separation: a new type of wound dressing for controlled antibacterial release. J Membr Sci 212:237–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Mundargi RC, Patil SA, Agnihotri SA, Aminabhavi TM (2007) Evaluation and controlled release characteristics of modified xanthan films for transdermal delivery of atenolol. Drug Dev Indus Pharm 33(1):79–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Najib NN, Ariff ZM, Bakar AA, Sipaut CS (2011) Correlation between the acoustic and dynamic mechanical properties of natural rubber foam: effect of foaming temperature. Mater Design 32:505–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Oh J, Yoo YH., Yoo S, Huh Y, Chaki TK, Nah C (2013) Effect of plasticizer and curing system on freezing resistance of rubbers. J Appl Polym Sci 131(2) (Version of record online: 20 Aug, 2013)Google Scholar
  15. Park CR, Munday DL (2004) Evaluation of selected polysaccharide excipients in buccoadhesive tablets for sustained release of nicotine. Drug Dev Indus Pharm 30(6):609–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Peh KK, Wong CF (2000) Application of similarity factor in the development of controlled release diltiazem tablet. Drug Dev Indus Pharm 26:723–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Phaechamud T, Ritthidej GC (2007) Sustained-release from layered matrix system comprising chitosan and xanthan gum. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 33(6):595–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Pichayakorn W, Suksaeree J, Boonme P, Amnuaikit T, Taweepreda W, Ritthidej GC (2012) Nicotine transdermal patches using polymeric natural rubber as the matrix controlling system: effect of polymer and plasticizer blends. J Membr Sci 411–412:81–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Pojanavaraphan T, Liu L, Ceylan D, Okay O, Magaraphan R, Schiraldi DA (2011) Solution cross-linked natural rubber (NR)/clay aerogel composites. Macromolecules 44:923–931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pople PV, Singh KK (2006) Development and evaluation of topical formulation containing solid lipid nanoparticles of vitamin A. AAPS Pharm Sci Tech 7(4):91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Quinten T, De Beer T, Onofre FO, Mendez-Montealvo G, Wang YJ, Remon JP, Vervaet C (2011) Sustained-release and swelling characteristics of xanthan gum/ethylcellulose-based injection moulded matrix tablets: in vitro and in vivo evaluation. J Pharm Sci 100:2858–2870.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.22480 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rathnayake WG, Ismail H, Baharin A, Darsanasiri AG, Rajapakse S (2012) Synthesis and characterization of nano silver based natural rubber latex foam for imparting antibacterial and anti-fungal properties. Polym Test 31:586–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rezaie R, Frew SE, Sammut SM, Maliakkal MR, Daar AS, Singer AS (2008) Brazilian health biotech-fostering crosstalk between public and private sectors. Nat Biotechnol 26(6):627–644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rowe RC, Sheskey PJ, Quinn ME (2009) Xanthan gum. In: Rowe RC, Sheskey PJ, Quinin ME (eds) Handbook of pharmaceutical excipients, 6th edn. Pharmaceutical Press and American Pharmacists Association, Washington, pp 782–785Google Scholar
  25. Saijun D, Nakason C, Kaesaman A, Klinpituksa P (2009) Water absorption and mechanical properties of water-swellable natural rubber. Songklanakarin J Sci Technol 31(5):561–565Google Scholar
  26. Simchareon W, Amnuaikit T, Boonme R, Taweepreda W, Pichayakorn W (2012) Characterization of natural rubber latex film containing various enhancers. Procedia Chem 4:308–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Simchareon W, Amnuaikit T, Boonme P, Taweepreda W, Pichayakorn W (2013) Properties of deproteinized natural rubber latex blended films with glycol penetration enhancers for pharmaceutical applications. Adv Mater Res 747:87–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Snejdrova E, Dittrich M (2012) Pharmaceutical applications of plasticized polymers. In: Recent advances in plasticizers. Intech, Edited by Luqman, pp 69–90Google Scholar
  29. Sorsom A (2009) Development of pressure sensitive adhesive patch from natural rubber. MScience dissertation. Faculty of Science, Graduate School, Prince of Songkla UniversityGoogle Scholar
  30. Subia B, Kundu J, Kundu SC (2012) Biomaterial scaffold fabrication techniques for potential tissue engineering applications. In: Tissue engineering. Intech, Edited by Eberli, pp 141–158Google Scholar
  31. Suksaeree J, Boonme P, Taweepreda W, Ritthidej GC, Pichayakorn W (2012) Characterization in vitro release and permeation studies of nicotine transdermal patches prepared from deproteinized natural rubber latex blends. Chem Eng Res Des 12(90):906–914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tangsadthakun C, Kanokpanont S, Sanchavanakit N, Banaprasert T, Damrongsakkul S (2006) Properties of collagen/chitosan scaffolds for skin tissue engineering. J Metal Mater Miner 16(1):37–44Google Scholar
  33. Thu HE, Zulfakar MH, Ng SF (2012) Alginate based bilayer hydrocolloid film as potential slow-release modern wound dressing. Int J Pharm 434:375–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Zeng WM (2004) Oral controlled release formulation for highly water-soluble drugs: drug–sodium alginate-xanthan gum-zinc acetate matrix. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 30(5):491–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thawatchai Phaechamud
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nutdanai Lertsuphotvanit
    • 1
  • Pongsathorn Issarayungyuen
    • 1
  • Takron Chantadee
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of PharmacySilpakorn UniversityNakhon PathomThailand

Personalised recommendations