Cell-penetrating peptide-based non-invasive topical delivery systems
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been receiving much attention over the last few decades due to their unique ability to translocate across plasma membranes efficiently and carry the wide range of macromolecular cargoes with them. Although their intracellular delivery mechanism has not been fully elucidated, CPP-based cellular uptake, mainly mediated by direct transduction or endocytosis, depends on structural characteristics of CPPs, the type and concentration of CPPs or cargoes, and cell types being treated. To overcome the intrinsic drawbacks of CPPs including lack of cell or tissue specificity, short plasma half-life, and endosomal sequestration, various strategies have been suggested such as activatable CPPs (ACPPs), introduction of targeting moieties and fusion peptides, and topical delivery systems for clinical application. In this review, we provide an overview of up-to-date knowledge of intracellular delivery mechanisms of CPPs and introduce potential topical applications of CPPs such as transdermal, nasal and ocular delivery for non-invasive delivering the therapeutic proteins or peptides.
KeywordsCell-penetrating peptides Intracellular delivery Topical delivery Ocular delivery Protein delivery
This work was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2017R1D1A1B03028732), by the Bio & Medical Technology Development Program of the National Research Foundation funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (2013M3A9B5075840), and in part by a research grant funded by the Sunchon Research Center for Natural Medicines. The authors gratefully appreciate the assistance of Mr. Jeonghyun Moon for editing and proofreading this manuscript.
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Conflict of the interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Research involving human and animal participants
This article does not contain any studies with human and animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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