Disinfestation of Chickpea and Green Gram from Callosobruchus maculatus Adults Through Hot-Air-Assisted Microwave Heating System

  • Debabandya MohapatraEmail author
  • Kousik Prasun Saha
  • V. Bhushana Babu
Full-Length Research Article


Pulse bruchid-infested samples of green gram (Vigna radiata) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum) having different moisture contents (7.5–9.5% wb) (1 cm bed depth) were exposed to microwave–hot air treatment for different exposure times (3 min 20 s to 6 min) and hot air temperatures (40–60 °C). Protein content, cooking time, textural kinetics, color and viability of the treated samples were analyzed, and techno-economic feasibility analysis was carried out for the process. Hundred percent mortality of adult insect (Callosobruchus maculatus) was achieved immediately, at an air temperature of 60 °C with microwave exposure period of 6 min at 2900 W power level. All the three processing parameters, i.e., moisture content, period of exposure and hot air temperature, were found to have significant effect on the mortality of pulse bruchids for both chickpea and green gram. Negligible differences were observed between the control and treated samples with respect to protein content for both chickpea and green gram. Cooking time, textural hardness, L value, greenness and viability of treated samples were lower than control sample. Cost of the treatment works out to be INR 6.28–7.07 per kg which is likely to come down with economics of scale.


Pulse bruchids Microwave–hot air Mortality Economic analysis Cooking quality Protein content 



The authors would to place on record their gratitude to Director, IICPT, for providing the facilities at IICPT, Dr. J. Alice R. P. Sujeetha, Head, Department of Primary Processing, Storage and Handling, for supplying the insects and Dr. S. Ganeshan, Principal Scientist, ICAR-CIAE, for improvising the language of the manuscript.

Supplementary material

40003_2018_346_MOESM1_ESM.docx (16 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 17 kb)
40003_2018_346_MOESM2_ESM.docx (17 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 18 kb)


  1. 1.
    Chauhan YS, Ghaffar MA (2002) Solar heating of seeds—a low-cost method to control bruchid (Callosobruchus spp.) attack during storage of pigeon pea. J Stored Prod Res 38(1):87–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Das I, Shah NG, Kumar G (2014) Properties of walnut influenced by short time microwave treatment for disinfestation of insect infestation. J Stored Prod Res 59:152–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    FAO (2012) Accessed on 28 June 2012
  4. 4.
    Fields PG (1992) The control of stored-product insects and mites with extreme temperatures. J Stored Prod Res 28(2):89–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gao M, Tang J, Wang Y, Powers J, Wang S (2010) Almond quality as influenced by radio frequency heat treatments for disinfestations. Postharvest Biol Technol 58(3):225–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Guo W, Wang S, Tiwari G, Johnson JA, Tang J (2010) Temperature and moisture dependent dielectric properties of legume flour associated with dielectric heating. LWT-Food Sci Tech 43(2):193–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hansen JD, Johnson JA, Winter DA (2011) History and use of heat in pest control: a review. Int J Pest Manag 4:267–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jian F, Jayas DS, White ND, Fields PG, Howe N (2015) An evaluation of insect expulsion from wheat samples by microwave treatment for disinfestation. Biosyst Eng 130:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jiao S, Johnson JA, Tang J, Wang S (2012) Industrial-scale radio frequency treatments for insect control in lentils. J Stored Prod Res 48:143–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Johnson JA, Wang S, Tang J (2010) Radio frequency treatments for insect disinfestation of dried legumes.
  11. 11.
    Khamis M, Subramanyam B, Flinn PW, Dogan H, Jager A, Gwirtz JA (2010) Susceptibility of various life stages of Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) to flameless catalytic infrared radiation. J Econ Entomol 103(4):1508–1516CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Khetarpaul N, Goyal R, Garg R (2005) Effect of salt solution pretreatment on the cooking quality and consumer acceptability of soy dhal. Brit Food J 107(5):344–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lale NES, Vidal S (2003) Simulation studies on the effects of solar heat on egg-laying, development and survival of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Callosobruchus subinnotatus in stored bambara groundnut Vigna subterranean (L.) Verdcourt. J Stored Prod Res 39(5):447–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lale NES (1998) Preliminary studies on the effect of solar heat on oviposition, development and adult mortality of the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F) in the Nigerian savanna. J Arid Environ 40(2):157–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Loganathan M, Jayas DS, Fields PG, White NDG (2011) Low and high temperatures for the control of cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (F) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in chickpeas. J Stored Prod Res 47(3):244–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lokanadhan K, Mani K, Mahendran K (2009) Innovations in agri-business management. New India Publishing, New Delhi. ISBN 9789351245094Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Manickavasagan A, Jayas DS, White NDG (2006) Non-uniformity of surface temperatures of grain after microwave treatment in an industrial microwave dryer. Dry Technol 24(12):1559–1567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mohapatra D, Bal S (2006) Cooking quality and instrumental textural attributes of cooked rice for different milling fractions. J Food Eng 73(3):253–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mohapatra D, Giri SK, Kar A (2014) Effect of microwave aided disinfestation of Callosobruchus maculatus on green gram quality. Int J Agric Food Sci Technol 5(2):55–62Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mohapatra D, Kar A, Giri SK (2015) Insect pest management in stored pulses: an overview. Food Bioprocess Technol 8(2):239–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pan Z, Khir R, Godfrey LD, Lewis R, Thompson JF, Salim A (2008) Feasibility of simultaneous rough rice drying and disinfestations by infrared radiation heating and rice milling quality. J Food Eng 84(3):469–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pande R, Mishra HN, Singh MN (2012) Microwave drying for safe storage and improved nutritional quality of green gram seed (Vigna radiata). J Agric Food Chem 60(14):3809–3816CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Poswal MAT, Akpa AD (1991) Current trends in the use of traditional and organic methods for the control of crop pests and diseases in Nigeria. Int J Pest Manag 37(4):329–333Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Purohit P, Jayas DS, Yadav BK, Chelladurai V, Fields PG, White NDG (2013) Microwaves to control Callosobruchus maculatus in stored mung bean (Vigna radiata). J Stored Prod Res 53:19–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Salo-väänänen PP, Koivistoinen PE (1996) Determination of protein in foods: comparison of net protein and crude protein (N × 6.25) values. Food Chem 57(1):27–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Shah MA, Khan AA (2014) Use of diatomaceous earth for the management of stored-product pests. Int J Pest Manag 60(2):100–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Singh R, Singh KK, Kotwalewale N (2012) Study on disinfestation of pulses using microwave technique. J Food Sci Technol 49:505–509CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Songa JM, Rono W (1998) Indigenous methods for bruchid beetle (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) control in stored beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Int J Pest Manag 44(1):1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Vadivambal R, Deji OF, Jayas DS, White NDG (2010) Disinfestation of stored corn using microwave energy. Agric Biol J N Am 1(1):18–26Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Vadivambal R, Jayas DS, White NDG (2007) Wheat disinfestation using microwave energy. J Stored Prod Res 43:508–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wang S, Tang J, Johnson JA, Mitcham E, Hansen JD, Hallman G, Drake SR, Wang Y (2003) Dielectric properties of fruits and insect pests as related to radio frequency and microwave treatments. Biosyst Eng 85(2):201–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wang S, Tiwari G, Jiao S, Johnson JA, Tang J (2010) Developing postharvest disinfestation treatments for legumes using radio frequency energy. Biosyst Eng 105:341–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zhao S, Qiu C, Xiong S, Cheng X (2007) A thermal lethal model of rice weevils subjected to microwave irradiation. J Stored Prod Res 43:430–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© NAAS (National Academy of Agricultural Sciences) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Agro Produce Processing DivisionICAR-Central Institute of Agricultural EngineeringBhopalIndia
  2. 2.Technology Transfer DivisionICAR-Central Institute of Agricultural EngineeringBhopalIndia
  3. 3.Agricultural Mechanisation DivisionICAR-Central Institute of Agricultural EngineeringBhopalIndia

Personalised recommendations