Agricultural Research

, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp 44–55 | Cite as

Crop Establishment Methods, Use of Microbial Consortia, Biofilms and Zinc Fertilization for Enhancing Productivity and Profitability of Rice–Wheat Cropping System

  • Amit Anil Shahane
  • Yashbir Singh ShivayEmail author
  • Dinesh Kumar
  • Radha Prasanna
Full-Length Research Article


Rice–wheat cropping system in India (RWCS) is facing several problems which lead to reducing productivity and profitability. Change in the crop establishment methods (CEMs) and nutrient and water management strategies have considerable influence on both productivity and profitability. Our 2-year study at ICAR—Indian Agricultural Research Institute—showed that net return in aerobic rice system followed by (fb) zero-till wheat increased by ₹ 3416–7737 ha−1 over the conventional puddled transplanted rice fb conventional drill-sown wheat and ₹ 7864–12,376 ha−1 over system of rice intensification (SRI) fb system of wheat intensification due to savings in energy and water, even though gross return and system productivity were statistically identical in all three CEMs. Zinc fertilization increased the net return and system productivity by ₹ 5350–7670 ha−1 and 0.34–0.39 Mg ha−1 when applied with 100% recommended dose of fertilizer (120 kg nitrogen ha−1 and 25.8 kg phosphorus ha−1). Nutrient management strategy involving AnabaenaPseudomonas biofilmed formulations improved system productivity by 350–440 kg ha−1 and net return by ₹ 9217–11,344 ha−1 over the same quantity of chemical fertilizer application. Net return was highly correlated with cost of cultivation (R2 = 0.95 and 0.99) than the gross return in both years indicating the importance of cost of cultivation in selecting CEM than gross return.


Aerobic rice system Anabaena sp. (CR1) + Providencia sp (PR3) consortia AnabaenaPseudomonas biofilmed formulations Rice–wheat cropping system System of rice intensification Zero tillage wheat 


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Copyright information

© NAAS (National Academy of Agricultural Sciences) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amit Anil Shahane
    • 1
  • Yashbir Singh Shivay
    • 1
    Email author
  • Dinesh Kumar
    • 1
  • Radha Prasanna
    • 1
  1. 1.ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia

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