Agricultural Research

, Volume 7, Issue 4, pp 456–462 | Cite as

The Effects of Crop Establishment Method, Soil–Water Regime and Integrated Nutrient Management Practices on Sustainability of Rice Yield in North-Eastern India

  • A. K. SinghEmail author
  • Mandira Chakraborti
Full-Length Research Article


A field experiment was conducted in rice fields of the mid-tropical plain zone of north-eastern India with an aim to develop options through integrated management of soil, water, nutrition and plant for sustainable rice production. The experimental fields were managed in three transects by growing rice under the system of rice intensification (SRI), integrated crop management (ICM) and conventional rice culture (CRC) with fertiliser treatments of NPK100–100–100; NPK100–100–100 + FYM; and NPK50–50–50 + FYM + biofertiliser. The results reveal that the SRI and ICM systems of rice culture give a good yield with better water use efficiency. The quantity of water required for producing one kilogram of rice was 1498 L in SRI and 1535 L in ICM compared to 1883 L in CRC. The requirement of fertiliser under SRI and ICM methods of transplanted rice was less than half of the fertiliser requirement of the CRC method. The soil–water regime, crop establishment method and integrated nutrient management (INM) practices significantly influenced the sustainability yield indices (85–99%) of rice in this climate scenario.


Lowland rice Water use efficiency Integrated nutrient management Crop establishment method North-eastern India 


  1. 1.
    Auffhammer M, Ramanathan V, Vincent JR (2006) Integrated model shows that atmospheric brown clouds and greenhouse gases have reduced rice harvests in India. In: Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences of the USA, pp 19668–19672Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ceesay M, Reid SW, Fernandes ECM, Uphoff NT (2006) The effect of repeated soil wetting and drying on low land rice yield with System of Rice Intensification (SRI) methods. Int J Agric Sustain 4:5–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chauhan BS, Mahajan G (2013) Strategies for boosting rice yield in the face of climate change in India. J Rice Res 1:1Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cruz RV, Harasawa H, Lai M, Wu S, Anokhin Y, Punsalmaa B, Honda Y, Jafari M, Li C, Ninh HN (2007) Asia Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. In: Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, Van der Linden PJ, Hanson CE (eds) Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the international panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 469–506Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chapagain T, Yamaji E (2010) The effects of irrigation method, age of seedling and spacing on crop performance, productivity and water wise rice production in Japan. Paddy Water Environ 8:81–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dey S, Tripathi SN (2008) Aerosol direct radiative effects over Kanpur in the Indo-Gangetic basin, northern India: long-term (2001–2005) observations and implications to regional climate. J Geophys Res 113:1–20Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fernandes ECM, Uphoff N (2002) Summary from conference reports. In: Uphoff N, Fernandes ECM, Yuan LP, Peng JM, Rafaralahy S, Rabenandrasana J (eds) Assessment of the system for rice intensification (SRI). Cornell International Institute for Food, Agriculture and Development, (CIIFAD), Ithaca, pp 33–39Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ghosh A, Jha KP (2002) Advances in rice production technology for rainfed lowland ecology in eastern India. Indian Farm 52:3–6Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hore DK (2005) Rice diversity collection, conservation and management in northeastern India. Genet Resour Crop Evol 52:1129–1140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Humphreys E, Masih I, Kukal SS, Turral H, Sikka A (2006) Increasing field scale water productivity of rice-wheat systems in the Indo-Gangetic Basin. In: Proceedings of International Rice Congress, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gouranga Kar, Verma HN, Ravender Singh (2006) Effects of post-rainy season crop and supplemental irrigation on crop yield, water use efficiency and profitability in rainfed rice based cropping system of eastern India. Agric Water Manag 79:280–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kabir H, Uphoff N (2007) Results of disseminating the system of rice intensification with farmer field school methods in Northern Myanmar. Exp Agric 43:463–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kanwar JS (1994) Relevance of soil management in sustainable agriculture. Soil management for sustainable agriculture in dryland areas. Indian Society of Soil Science, New Delhi, pp 1–11Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mati BM, Wanjogu R, Odongo B, Home PG (2011) Introduction of the system of rice intensification in Kenya: experiences from Mwea irrigation scheme. Paddy Water Environ, 9:145–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Abha Mishra, Salokhe VM (2008) Seedling characteristics and the early growth of transplanted rice under different water regimes. Exp Agric 44:1–19Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    NARP (1979) Agro-climatic zone specific research: Indian perspective under NARP. ICAR, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    NBSSLUP (1996) Soils of India: Soils of Tripura for optimising land use. National Bureau of Soil Survey and land Use Planning (ICAR), NagpurGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pandey S, Sanamongkhoun M (1998) Rainfed lowland rice in Laos: a socioeconomic benchmark study. IRRI, Los BañosGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Peng S, Huang J, Sheehy JE, Laza RC, Visperas RM (2004) Rice yields decline with higher night temperature from global warming. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, pp 9971–9975Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Prasad J, Mathur BS (1997) Influence of long-term use of fertilizers. Indian Soc Soil Sci 45:24–27Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Randhawa NS (1994) Retrospect and prospect of rainfed agriculture and watershed management in India. Soil Management for Sustainable Agriculture in Dryland Areas, Indian Society of Soil Science, New Delhi, pp 135–143Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Randriamiharisoa R, Uphoff N (2002) Factorial trials evaluating the separate and combined effects of SRI practices. In: Proceedings of an International Conference, Ithaca, SanyaGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sasaki R, Hoshikawa K (1997) The role of crown roots from coleoptilar node in the rooting and development of transplanted rice nursling seedlings. Jpn J Crop Sci 66:259–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sah RN, Mikkelsen DS (1983) Availability and utilization of fertilizer nitrogen by rice under alternate flooding II: effects on growth and nitrogen use efficiency. Plant Soil 75:227–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Setty P, Bandi TK, Satnam Singh AG, Sanjay MT (2007) Influence of integrated nutrient management on growth and yield of hybrid rice under System of Rice Intensification (SRI) and Aerobic method of cultivation. In: Proceedings of national symposium on system of rice intensification (SRI) in India-progress and prospects, Agartala, India, pp 82–84Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Schiller JM, Chaphengxay MB, Linquist B, Rao SA (2006) Rice in Laos. International Rice Research Institute, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sheehy J, Mitchell PL, Beerling DJ, Tsukaguchi T (1998) Temperature of rice spikelets: thermal damage and the concept of a thermal burden. Agronomy 18:449–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sarmah AC, Bordoloi PK (1994) Decomposition of organic matter in soils in relation to mineralization of carbon and nutrient availability. Indian Soc Soil Sci 42:199–203Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Serpantie G, Rakotondramanana M (2013) Malagasy rice intensification, in practice. Cahiers Agric 22:401–410Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sinha SK, Talati J (2007) Productivity impacts of the system of rice intensification (SRI): a case study in West Bengal, India. Agric Water Manag 87:55–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Singh AK, Chakraborti M, Datta M (2014) Efficient use of soil moisture and nutrients in rice based cropping systems under mid-tropical plain zone of India. Rice Sci 21(5):299–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Singh RP, Das SK, Bhaskar Rao VM, Narayana Reddy M (1990) Towards sustainable dry land agriculture practices. CRIDA Report, HyderabadGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Stoop WA, Uphoff N, Kassam A (2002) A review of agricultural research issues raised by the system of rice intensification (SRI) from Madagascar: opportunities for improving farming systems for resource poor farmers. Agric Sys 71:249–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Thiyagarajan TM, Velu V, Ramasamy S, Durgadevi D, Govindarajan Priyadardhini R, Sudhalakshmi C, Senthilkumar K, Nisha PT, Gayathry G, Hengsdijk H, and Bindraban PS (2002) Effects of SRI practices on hybrid rice performance in Tamil Nadu, India, Water-wise rice production. In: Proceedings of the international workshop on water-wise rice production, Tamil Nadu, India, pp 19–127Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Uphoff N, Anas I, Rupela OP, Thiyagarajan TM (2009) Learning about positive plant-microbial interactions from the System of Rice Intensification. Aspects Appl Biol 98:29–53Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Van de Geijn SC, Goudriaan J (1996) The effects of elevated CO2 and temperature change on transpiration and crop water use. In: Bazzaz F, Sombroek WG (eds) Global climate change and agriculture production. Wiley, New York, pp 1–21Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Welch J, Vincent JR, Auffhammer M, Moya PF, Dobermann A (2010) Rice yields in tropical/subtropical Asia exhibit large but opposing sensitivities to minimum and maximum temperatures. In: Proceedings of the National Academy Science, pp 14562–14567Google Scholar

Copyright information

© NAAS (National Academy of Agricultural Sciences) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied FibresBarrackpore, KolkataIndia
  2. 2.KVK, ICAR Research Complex for NEH RegionSouth TripuraIndia

Personalised recommendations