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Multiple colonization with carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria acquired in India and transferred to Switzerland

  • Linda Mueller
  • Cornelia Ottiger
  • Anthony Demord
  • Laurent PoirelEmail author
  • Patrice Nordmann


Antimicrobial resistance is a serious and growing threat for global public health. In the European Union, Iceland and Norway, infections caused by antibiotic-resistant organisms are estimated to be responsible of 25,000 deaths per year [1].

A Swiss expert group on infectious diseases and hospital hygiene (Swissnoso) estimates that approximately 70,000 nosocomial infections occurs yearly, among which, nearly 2.9% end fatally for the patients [2]. In addition, attributable mortality to multidrug-resistant bacteria, mostly Gram-negatives, has been recently reported from Switzerland [3].

The most clinically-significant and emerging resistant determinants are: (1) the extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) that confer resistance to all β-lactams except cephamycins and carbapenems, (2) the carbapenemases that confer resistance to virtually all β-lactams, and (3) the 16S rRNA methylases that confer resistance to all aminoglycosides by methylation of the aminoglycosides target, namely the...



This work was funded by the University of Fribourg and by the Swiss National Reference Center for Emerging Antibiotic Resistance (NARA).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

None to declare.

Informed consent

All the authors agreed on the submitted version of the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Linda Mueller
    • 1
    • 2
  • Cornelia Ottiger
    • 3
  • Anthony Demord
    • 1
    • 2
  • Laurent Poirel
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
    Email author
  • Patrice Nordmann
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Emerging Antibiotic Resistance Unit, Medical and Molecular Microbiology, Faculty of Science and MedicineUniversity of FribourgFribourgSwitzerland
  2. 2.Swiss National Reference Center for Emerging Antibiotic Resistance (NARA)University of FribourgFribourgSwitzerland
  3. 3.Institute for Laboratory MedicineCantonal Hospital of AarauAarauSwitzerland
  4. 4.INSERM European Unit (IAME, France)University of FribourgFribourgSwitzerland
  5. 5.University Hospital Center and University of LausanneLausanneSwitzerland

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