A prediction rule for early recognition of patients with candidemia in Internal Medicine: results from an Italian, multicentric, case–control study
Increasing prevalence of candidemia in Internal Medicine wards (IMWs) has been reported in recent years, but risk factors for candida bloodstream infection in patients admitted to IMW may differ from those known in other settings. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors and define a prediction rule for the early recognition of the risk of candidemia in IMW inpatients.
This was a multicentric, retrospective, observational case–control study on non-neutropenic patients with candidemia admitted to IMWs of four large Italian Hospitals. Each eligible patient with candidemia (case) was matched to a control with bacteremia. Stepwise logistic regression analyses were performed.
Overall, 300 patients (150 cases and 150 controls) were enrolled. The following factors were associated with an increased risk of candidemia and weighted to build a score: total parenteral nutrition (OR 2.45, p = 0.008; 1 point); central venous catheter (OR 2.19, p = 0.031; 1 point); peripherally inserted central catheter (OR 5.63, p < 0.0001; 3 points), antibiotic treatment prior (OR 2.06; p = 0.059; 1 point) and during hospitalization (OR2.38, p = 0.033; 1 point); neurological disability (OR 2.25, p = 0.01; 1 point); and previous hospitalization within 3 months (OR 1.56, p = 0.163; 1 point). At ROC curve analysis, a final score ≥ 4 showed 84% sensitivity, 76% specificity, and 80% accuracy in predicting the risk of candidemia.
The proposed scoring system showed to be a simple and highly performing tool in distinguishing bloodstream infections due to Candida and bacteria in patients admitted to IMW. The proposed rule might help to reduce delay in empirical treatment and improve appropriateness in antifungal prescription in septic patients.
KeywordsCandidemia Internal medicine wards Prediction rule Risk factors
No financial support was received.
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Conflict of interest
CT has received funds for speaking at symposia organized on behalf of Pfizer, Novartis, Merck, and Astellas. All other authors: none to declare.
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