Management of superficial and deep-seated Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue infections in sub-Saharan Africa: a post hoc analysis of the StaphNet cohort
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The incidence of Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) is high in sub-Saharan Africa. This is fueled by a high prevalence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), which can be associated with necrotizing disease. The aim was to describe the clinical presentation and the treatment of SSTI in the African setting and to identify challenges in the management.
Patients (n = 319) were recruited in DR Congo (n = 56, 17.6%), Gabon (n = 89, 27.9%), Mozambique (n = 79, 24.8%) and Tanzania (n = 95, 29.8%) during the prospective observational StaphNet cohort study (2010–2015). A physician recorded the clinical management in standardized questionnaires and stratified the entity of SSTI into superficial (sSSTI) or deep-seated (dSSTI). Selected virulence factors (PVL, β hemolysin) and multilocus sequence types (MLST) were extracted from whole genome sequencing data.
There were 220/319 (69%) sSSTI and 99/319 (31%) dSSTI. Compared to sSSTI, patients with dSSTI were more often hospitalized (13.2 vs. 23.5%, p = 0.03), HIV-positive (7.6 vs. 15.9%, p = 0.11), and required more often incision and drainage (I&D, 45.5 vs. 76.5%, p = 0.04). The proportion of an adequate antimicrobial therapy increased marginally from day 1 (empirical therapy) to day 3 (definite therapy), for sSSTI (70.7 to 72.4%) and dSSTI (55.4 to 58.9%). PVL was a risk factor for I&D (OR = 1.7, p = 0.02) and associated with MLST clonal complex CC121 (OR = 2.7, p < 0.001).
Appropriate antimicrobial agents and surgical services to perform I&D were available for the majority of patients. Results from susceptibility testing should be considered more efficiently in the selection of antimicrobial therapy.
KeywordsStaphylococcus aureus Skin and soft tissue infection Sub-Saharan Africa Management Microbiology
This study received grants from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (HE 1850/11-1 to M.H., KE 700/3-1 to W.V.K., ME 3205/4-1 to A.M., and PE 296/6-1 to G.P.).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
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