Survival of an AIDS patient after infection with Acanthamoeba sp. of the central nervous system
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A 38-year-old man presented with headaches and generalized weakness. He was found to have AIDS; a ring-enhancing central nervous system lesion was found on brain imaging and he had elevated serum Toxoplasma gondii IgG levels. A diagnosis of presumptive toxoplasma encephalitis was made and he received antiretrovirals and antitoxoplasma therapy for 4 years. Intermittent headaches and evidence of disease progression on neuroimaging warranted further evaluation and cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed amebic forms on hematoxylin and eosin staining and positive polymerase chain reaction testing for Acanthamoeba spp. He was placed on miltefosine, fluconazole, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and flucytosine for 7 months. Five months after therapy discontinuation he remains asymptomatic and is taking only antiretroviral therapy.
This is the first report of a patient with AIDS and granulomatous amebic encephalitis who survived with medical therapy only.
KeywordsAIDS Granulomatous amebic encephalitis Acanthamoeba species
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Conflict of interest
The authors report no conflict of interest pertaining to the content of this manuscript.
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