, Volume 45, Issue 1, pp 33–40 | Cite as

Incidence of urinary tract infections and antibiotic resistance in the outpatient setting: a cross-sectional study

  • Louise Rossignol
  • Sophie Vaux
  • Sylvie Maugat
  • Alexandre Blake
  • Roxane Barlier
  • Beate Heym
  • Yann Le Strat
  • Thierry Blanchon
  • Thomas Hanslik
  • Bruno Coignard
Original Paper



In 2012–2013, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in women visiting a general practitioner for urinary tract infection (UTI), to estimate the annual incidence of UTIs due to antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli).


A sampling design (stratification, stages and sampling weights) was taken into account in all analyses. Urine analyses were performed for each woman and centralised in one laboratory.


Among 538 included women, urine culture confirmed UTI in 75.2 % of cases. E. coli represented 82.8 % of species. Among E. coli, resistance (I + R) was most common to amoxicillin [38 % (95 % confidence interval 31.1–44.5)] and to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole [18.1 % (12.0–24.1)]. Resistance to ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime was lower [1.9 % in both cases, (0.3–3.5)], as it was for nitrofurantoin [0.4 (0–1.0)] and fosfomycin (0). Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) represented 1.6 % of E. coli (0.2–2.9). Annual incidence rate of confirmed UTI was estimated at 2400 per 100,000 women (1800–3000). Incidence rates of UTI due to fluoroquinolone-resistant and ESBL-producing E. coli were estimated at 102 per 100,000 women (75–129) and at 32 (24–41), respectively.


ESBL had been found in a community population, and even though the rate was low, it represents a warning and confirms that surveillance should continue.


Urinary tract infection Escherichia coli Antibiotic resistance Incidence General population General practitioner 



We thank all the GPs and their patients. We thank Pr Richard Bonnet, National reference centre for ESBL for ESBL analysis.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


Authors report grants from The French Institute for Public Health Surveillance (Institut de veille sanitaire, InVS), grants from Health General Direction of France (DGS), grants from Corporate foundation GPM, grants from French Urology Association during the conduct of the study. They had no role in the study design, data collection, analyses, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Louise Rossignol
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Sophie Vaux
    • 4
  • Sylvie Maugat
    • 4
  • Alexandre Blake
    • 4
  • Roxane Barlier
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Beate Heym
    • 5
    • 6
  • Yann Le Strat
    • 4
  • Thierry Blanchon
    • 2
    • 3
  • Thomas Hanslik
    • 3
    • 5
    • 6
  • Bruno Coignard
    • 4
  1. 1.Département de Médecine GénéraleUPMC Univ Paris 06ParisFrance
  2. 2.Institut Pierre Louis d’Epidémiologie et de Santé PubliqueSorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR_S 1136ParisFrance
  3. 3.INSERM, UMR_S 1136, Institut Pierre Louis d’Epidémiologie et de Santé PubliqueParisFrance
  4. 4.Institut de Veille SanitaireSaint-Maurice CedexFrance
  5. 5.Hopital Universitaire Ambroise Paré AP-HPBoulogne-BillancourtFrance
  6. 6.Université Versailles-Saint-Quentin-en-YvelinesVersaillesFrance

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