Neonatal Ureaplasma urealyticum colonization increases pulmonary and cerebral morbidity despite treatment with macrolide antibiotics
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To evaluate the influence of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) colonization on neonatal pulmonary and cerebral morbidity.
Single-center case–control study including all preterm infants with positive UU tracheal colonization between 1990 and 2012. Cases were matched with controls by birth year, gestational age, birth weight, and sex. All cases had received macrolide antibiotics for UU infection starting at the time of first positive culture results from tracheal aspirates. Main outcome parameters included presence and severity of hyaline membrane disease (IRDS), duration of ventilation, bronchopulmonary dysplasia at 36 postmenstrual age and neurological morbidities (seizures, intra-/periventricular hemorrhages-I/PVH, periventricular leukomalacia-PVL).
Of 74 cases identified 8 died and 4 had to be excluded; thus, 62 preterm infants were compared to 62 matched controls. UU was significantly associated with IRDS (79 vs. 61 %, p = 0.015), BPD (24 vs. 6 %, p = 0.003), seizures (23 vs. 5 %, p = 0.002) and I/PVH (45 vs. 24 %, p = 0.028). Cases had longer duration of mechanical ventilation and total duration of invasive and non-invasive ventilation (median 11 vs. 6 days p = 0.006 and 25 vs. 16.5 days p = 0.019, respectively).
UU was found to be significantly associated with pulmonary short- and long-term morbidity and mild cerebral impairment despite treatment with macrolide antibiotics.
KeywordsUreaplasma urealyticum Erythromycin Respiratory distress syndrome Bronchopulmonary dysplasia Intraventricular hemorrhage
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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