Recurrent seizures during acute acquired toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent traveller returning from Africa
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We report an unusual case of acute acquired toxoplasmosis (AAT) presenting as lymphadenopathy and recurrent seizures in an immunocompetent 15-year-old boy.
Materials and methods
The patient reported an 18-day vacation to Africa (Ethiopia), 39 days prior to the first seizure. Electroencephalogram (EEG) showed sporadic single-spike or sharp-wave paroxysms and the magnetic resonance imaging (RMI) of the brain was negative. The serology for T. gondii was compatible with an acute infection defined as positive for both toxoplasma-specific IgG and IgM and a low avidity (6 %), confirmed by a reference laboratory. The patient reported other two episodes of seizures, occurring 7 days apart. He was treated with pyrimethamine plus sulfadiazine and leucovorin for 4 weeks, with an improvement of lymphadenitis and normalization of EEG. After 5 months, new seizures were reported and a diagnosis of epilepsy was done. Toxoplasma polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood were negative. A treatment with valproic acid was started, obtaining control of the neurological disease.
Awareness of this neurologic manifestation by clinicians is required, also in immunocompetent patients. The relationship between toxoplasmosis and recurrent seizure needs to be investigated by new studies.
KeywordsToxoplasma gondii Acute acquired toxoplasmosis Seizure Immunocompetent Travel
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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