Infection

, Volume 42, Issue 4, pp 601–610 | Cite as

Acute hepatitis C: clinical and laboratory diagnosis, course of the disease, treatment

  • E. Sagnelli
  • T. Santantonio
  • N. Coppola
  • M. Fasano
  • M. Pisaturo
  • C. Sagnelli
Review

Abstract

Introduction

Acute hepatitis C (AHC) is asymptomatic in about 70–80 % of cases and, therefore, is usually undiagnosed. Although the clinical course is typically mild, AHC has a high rate of transition to chronicity.

Material and methods

We evaluated the literature data concerning risk factors for HCV transmission, diagnosis, natural history, and antiviral treatment of AHC.

Results

Although new methods have been developed, anti-HCV seroconversion remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of AHC. This phenomenon, however, is identifiable in less than half of cases in the everyday clinical practice, since most AHC patients do not know their previous anti-HCV/HCV-RNA status. An early short-term interferon treatment in AHC patients prevents progression to chronicity in most of treated patients.

Conclusion

The literature data give evidence of the clinical relevance of an early diagnosis of AHC for an early short-term interferon treatment. There is also the suggestion to use newly developed laboratory methods to distinguish AHC from an acute exacerbation of a chronic HCV infection.

Keywords

Acute hepatitis C Acute viral hepatitis Treatment acute hepatitis C Diagnosis acute hepatitis C 

Notes

Conflict of interest

No competing interests.

References

  1. 1.
    Orland JR, Wright TL, Cooper S. Acute hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2001;33:321–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Blackard JT, Shata MT, Shire NJ, Sherman KE. Acute hepatitis C virus infection: a chronic problem. Hepatology. 2008;47:321–31.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Modi AA, Feld JJ. Viral hepatitis and HIV in Africa. AIDS Rev. 2007;9:25–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mohd Hanafiah K, Groeger J, Flaxman AD, Wiersma S. Global epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection: new estimates of age-specific antibody to HCV seroprevalence. Hepatology. 2013;57:1333–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Loomba R, Rivera MM, McBurney R, Park Y, Haynes-Williams V, Rehermann B, Alter HJ, Herrine SK, Liang TJ, Hoofnagle JH, Heller T. The natural history of acute hepatitis C: clinical presentation, laboratory findings and treatment outcomes. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2011;33:559–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Santantonio T, Wiegand J, Gerlach JT. Acute hepatitis C: current status and remaining challenges. J Hepatol. 2008;49:625–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Filippini P, Coppola N, Scolastico C, Rossi G, Onofrio M, Sagnelli E, Piccinino F. Does HIV infection favor the sexual transmission of hepatitis C? Sex Transm Dis. 2001;28:725–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Corey KE, Mendez-Navarro J, Gorospe EC, Zheng H, Chung RT. Early treatment improves outcomes in acute hepatitis C virus infection: a meta-analysis. J Viral Hepat. 2010;17:201–7.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sagnelli E, Tonziello G, Pisaturo M, Sagnelli C, Coppola N. Clinical applications of antibody avidity and immunoglobulin M testing in acute HCV infection. Antivir Ther. 2012;17:1453–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Spada E, Mele A, Mariano A, Zuccaro O, Tosti ME; SEIEVA collaborating group. Risk factors for and incidence of acute hepatitis C after the achievement of blood supply safety in Italy: results from the national surveillance system. J Med Virol. 2013;85:433–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kim AY, Nagami EH, Birch CE, Bowen MJ, Lauer GM, McGovern BH. A simple strategy to identify acute hepatitis C virus infection among newly incarcerated injection drug users. Hepatology. 2013;57:944–52.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Santantonio T, Medda E, Ferrari C, Fabris P, Cariti G, Massari M, Babudieri S, Toti M, Francavilla R, Ancarani F, Antonucci G, Scotto G, Di Marco V, Pastore G, Stroffolini T. Risk factors and outcome among a large patient cohort with community-acquired acute hepatitis C in Italy. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:1154–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Indolfi G, Azzari C, Resti M. Perinatal transmission of hepatitis C virus. J Pediatr. 2013;163:1549–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cottrell EB, Chou R, Wasson N, Rahman B, Guise JM. Reducing risk for mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis C virus: a systematic review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2013;158:109–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Götz HM, van Doornum G, Niesters HG, den Hollander JG, Thio HB, de Zwart O. A cluster of acute hepatitis C virus infection among men who have sex with men—results from contact tracing and public health implications. AIDS. 2005;19:969–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    van de Laar TJ, van der Bij AK, Prins M, Bruisten SM, Brinkman K, Ruys TA, van der Meer JT, de Vries HJ, Mulder JW, van Agtmael M, Jurriaans S, Wolthers KC, Coutinho RA. Increase in HCV incidence among men who have sex with men in Amsterdam most likely caused by sexual transmission. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:230–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Danta M, Brown D, Bhagani S, Pybus OG, Sabin CA, Nelson M, Fisher M, Johnson AM, Dusheiko GM; HIV and Acute HCV (HAAC) group. Recent epidemic of acute hepatitis C virus in HIV-positive men who have sex with men linked to high-risk sexual behaviours. AIDS. 2007;21:983–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lambers FA, Prins M, Thomas X, Molenkamp R, Kwa D, Brinkman K, van der Meer JT, Schinkel J; MOSAIC (MSM Observational Study of Acute Infection with hepatitis C) study group. Alarming incidence of hepatitis C virus re-infection after treatment of sexually acquired acute hepatitis C virus infection in HIV-infected MSM. AIDS. 2011;25:F21–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wandeler G, Gsponer T, Bregenzer A, Günthard HF, Clerc O, Calmy A, Stöckle M, Bernasconi E, Furrer H, Rauch A; Swiss HIV Cohort Study. Hepatitis C virus infections in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study: a rapidly evolving epidemic. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55:1408–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Martin TC, Martin NK, Hickman M, Vickerman P, Page EE, Everett R, Gazzard BG, Nelson M. Hepatitis C virus reinfection incidence and treatment outcome among HIV-positive MSM in London. AIDS. 2013;27:2551–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Esteban JI, Sauleda S, Quer J. The changing epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection in Europe. J Hepatol. 2008;48:148–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shepard CW, Finelli L, Alter MJ. Global epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005;5:558–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rantala M, van de Laar MJ. Surveillance and epidemiology of hepatitis B and C in Europe—a review. Euro Surveill. 2008;13:pii:18880.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Daniels D, Grytdal S, Wasley A; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Surveillance for acute viral hepatitis—United States, 2007. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2009;58:1–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Prati D. Transmission of hepatitis C virus by blood transfusions and other medical procedures: a global review. J Hepatol. 2006;45:607–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    European Association for Study of Liver. EASL Clinical Practice Guidelines: management of hepatitis C virus infection. J Hepatol. 2014;60:392–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sagnelli E, Coppola N, Marrocco C, Coviello G, Rossi G, Battaglia M, Sagnelli C, Messina V, Tonziello A, Scolastico C, Filippini P. Diagnosis of HCV related acute hepatitis by serial determination of IgM to HCV: a preliminary observation. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2003;17:207–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sagnelli E, Coppola N, Marrocco C, Coviello G, Battaglia M, Messina V, Rossi G, Sagnelli C, Scolastico C, Filippini P. Diagnosis of hepatitis C virus related acute hepatitis by serial determination of IgM anti-HCV titres. J Hepatol. 2005;42:646–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Coppola N, Vatiero LM, Sagnelli E. HCV genotype 2 as a risk factor for reactivation of chronic HCV infection. Gut. 2005;54:1207.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sagnelli E, Pisaturo M, Stanzione M, Messina V, Alessio L, Sagnelli C, Starace M, Pasquale G, Coppola N. Clinical presentation, outcome, and response to therapy among patients with acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis C. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013;11:1174–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lu SN, Tung HD, Chen TM, Lee CM, Wang JH, Hung CH, Chen CH, Changchien CS. Is it possible to diagnose acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection by a rising anti-HCV titre rather than by seroconversion? J Viral Hepat. 2004;11:563–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nikolaeva LI, Blokhina NP, Tsurikova NN, Voronkova NV, Miminoshvili MI, Braginsky DM, Yastrebova ON, Booynitskaya OB, Isaeva OV, Michailov MI, Archakov AI. Virus-specific antibody titres in different phases of hepatitis C virus infection. J Viral Hepat. 2002;9:429–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Araujo AC, Astrakhantseva IV, Fields HA, Kamili S. Distinguishing acute from chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection based on antibody reactivities to specific HCV structural and nonstructural proteins. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:54–7.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ward KN, Dhaliwal W, Ashworth KL, Clutterbuck EJ, Teo CG. Measurement of antibody avidity for hepatitis C virus distinguishes primary antibody responses from passively acquired antibody. J Med Virol. 1994;43:367–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kanno A, Kazuyama Y. Immunoglobulin G antibody avidity assay for serodiagnosis of hepatitis C virus infection. J Med Virol. 2002;68:229–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Coppola N, Pisapia R, Marrocco C, Martini S, Vatiero LM, Messina V, Tonziello G, Sagnelli C, Filippini P, Piccinino F, Sagnelli E. Anti-HCV IgG avidity index in acute hepatitis C. J Clin Virol. 2007;40:110–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Coppola N, Pisapia R, Tonziello G, Masiello A, Martini S, Pisaturo M, Messina V, Sagnelli C, Macera M, Signoriello G, Sagnelli E. Improvement in the aetiological diagnosis of acute hepatitis C: a diagnostic protocol based on the anti-HCV-IgM titre and IgG Avidity Index. J Clin Virol. 2009;46:222–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gaudy-Graffin C, Lesage G, Kousignian I, Laperche S, Girault A, Dubois F, Goudeau A, Barin F. Use of an anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) IgG avidity assay to identify recent HCV infection. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:3281–7.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Quiroga JA, van Binsbergen J, Wang CY, Pardo M, Navas S, Trines C, Herrero M, Carreño V. Immunoglobulin M antibody to hepatitis C virus core antigen: correlations with viral replication, histological activity, and liver disease outcome. Hepatology. 1995;22:1635–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Chen M, Sönnerborg A, Sällberg M. Levels of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in serum and their relationship to levels of immunoglobulin M and G antibodies against HCV core protein. J Clin Microbiol. 1995;33:778–80.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Negro F, Giostra E, Rubbia-Brandt L, Mentha G, Colucci G, Morel P, Quadri R, Perrin L, Hadengue A. IgM anti-hepatitis C virus core antibodies as marker of recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation. J Med Virol. 1998;56:224–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Baumert TF, Wellnitz S, Aono S, Satoi J, Herion D, Tilman Gerlach J, Pape GR, Lau JY, Hoofnagle JH, Blum HE, Liang TJ. Antibodies against hepatitis C virus-like particles and viral clearance in acute and chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2000;32:610–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sheen IS, Liaw YF, Lin DY, Chu CM. Acute exacerbations in chronic hepatitis C: a clinicopathological and prognostic study. J Hepatol. 1996;24:525–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Rumi MG, De Filippi F, La Vecchia C, Donato MF, Gallus S, Del Ninno E, Colombo M. Hepatitis C reactivation in patients with chronic infection with genotypes 1b and 2c: a retrospective cohort study of 206 untreated patients. Gut. 2005;54:402–6.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Zuccaro O, Tosti ME, Mele A, Spada E; SEIEVA Collaborating Group. Rapporti ISTISAN. 2012. No. 12/4.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Liaw YF, Chen YC, Sheen IS, Chien RN, Yeh CT, Chu CM. Impact of acute hepatitis C virus superinfection in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Gastroenterology. 2004;126:1024–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sagnelli E, Coppola N, Marrocco C, Onofrio M, Sagnelli C, Coviello G, Scolastico C, Filippini P. Hepatitis C virus superinfection in hepatitis B virus chronic carriers: a reciprocal viral interaction and a variable clinical course. J Clin Virol. 2006;35:317–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Micallef JM, Kaldor JM, Dore GJ. Spontaneous viral clearance following acute hepatitis C infection: a systematic review of longitudinal studies. J Viral Hepat. 2006;13:34–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wang CC, Krantz E, Klarquist J, Krows M, McBride L, Scott EP, Shaw-Stiffel T, Weston SJ, Thiede H, Wald A, Rosen HR. Acute hepatitis C in a contemporary US cohort: modes of acquisition and factors influencing viral clearance. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:1474–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Rehermann B. Hepatitis C virus versus innate and adaptive immune responses: a tale of coevolution and coexistence. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:1745–54.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Post J, Ratnarajah S, Lloyd AR. Immunological determinants of the outcomes from primary hepatitis C infection. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2009;66:733–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Spada E, Amoroso P, Taliani G, Zuccaro O, Chiriacò P, Maio P, Maio G, Esposito ML, Mariano C, Rinaldi R, Bellissima P, Tosti ME, Del Porto P, Francavilla R, Mellace V, Garbuglia AR, Folgori A, Mele A; Acute Hepatitis Italian Study Group. Role of IL28B gene polymorphism and cell-mediated immunity in spontaneous resolution of acute hepatitis C. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57:803–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Coppola N, Marrone A, Pisaturo M, Starace M, Signoriello G, Gentile I, Adinolfi LE, Sagnelli E, Zampino R. Role of interleukin 28-B in the spontaneous and treatment-related clearance of HCV infection in patients with chronic HBV/HCV dual infection. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2013;(In press).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Puoti C, Magrini A, Stati T, Rigato P, Montagnese F, Rossi P, Aldegheri L, Resta S. Clinical, histological, and virological features of hepatitis C virus carriers with persistently normal or abnormal alanine transaminase levels. Hepatology. 1997;26:1393–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Coppola N, Zampino R, Bellini G, Macera M, Marrone A, Pisaturo M, Boemio A, Nobili B, Pasquale G, Maione S, Adinolfi LE, Perrone L, Sagnelli E, Miraglia Del Giudice E, Rossi F. Association between a polymorphism in cannabinoid receptor 2 and severe necroinflammation in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014;12:334–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Omata M, Kanda T, Yu M-L, Yokosuka O, Lim S-G, Jafri W, Tateishi R, Hamid SS, Chuang W-L, Chutaputti A, Wei L, Sollano J, Sarin SK, Kao J-H, MvCaughan GW. APASL consensus statements and management algorithms for hepatitis C virus infection. Hepatol Int. 2012;6:409–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Wiegand J, Buggisch P, Boecher W, Zeuzem S, Gelbmann CM, Berg T, Kauffmann W, Kallinowski B, Cornberg M, Jaeckel E, Wedemeyer H, Manns MP; German HEP-NET Acute HCV Study Group. Early monotherapy with pegylated interferon alpha-2b for acute hepatitis C infection: the HEP-NET acute-HCV-II study. Hepatology. 2006;43:250–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Santantonio T, Fasano M, Sinisi E, Guastadisegni A, Casalino C, Mazzola M, Francavilla R, Pastore G. Efficacy of a 24-week course of PEG-interferon alpha-2b monotherapy in patients with acute hepatitis C after failure of spontaneous clearance. J Hepatol. 2005;42:329–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kamal SM, Fouly AE, Kamel RR, Hockenjos B, Al Tawil A, Khalifa KE, He Q, Koziel MJ, El Naggar KM, Rasenack J, Afdhal NH. Peginterferon alfa-2b therapy in acute hepatitis C: impact of onset of therapy on sustained virologic response. Gastroenterology. 2006;130:632–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Deterding K, Grüner N, Buggisch P, Wiegand J, Galle PR, Spengler U, Hinrichsen H, Berg T, Potthoff A, Malek N, Großhennig A, Koch A, Diepolder H, Lüth S, Feyerabend S, Jung MC, Rogalska-Taranta M, Schlaphoff V, Cornberg M, Manns MP, Wedemeyer H; Hep-Net Acute HCV-III Study Group. Delayed versus immediate treatment for patients with acute hepatitis C: a randomised controlled non-inferiority trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013;13:497–506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Santantonio T, Fasano M, Sagnelli E, Tundo P, Babudieri S, Fabris P, Toti M, Perri GD, Marino N, Pizzigallo E, Angarano G; Acute Hepatitis C Study Group. Acute hepatitis C: a 24 week-course of Peg-interferon α-2b versus a 12 week-course of Peg-interferon α-2b alone or with ribavirin. Hepatology. 2014;(Epub ahead of print). doi: 10.1002/hep.26991.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Calleri G, Cariti G, Gaiottino F, De Rosa FG, Bargiacchi O, Audagnotto S, Quaglia S, De Blasi T, Romano P, Traverso A, Leo G, Carbone R, Del Mastro B, Tinelli M, Caramello P, Di Perri G. A short course of pegylated interferon alpha in acute HCV hepatitis. J Viral Hepat. 2007;14:116–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kamal SM, Moustafa KN, Chen J, Fehr J, Abdel Moneim A, Khalifa KE, El Gohary LA, Ramy AH, Madwar MA, Rasenack J, Afdhal NH. Duration of peginterferon therapy in acute hepatitis C: a randomized trial. Hepatology. 2006;43:923–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Broers B, Helbling B, François A, Schmid P, Chuard C, Hadengue A, Negro F; Swiss Association for the Study of the Liver (SASL 18). Barriers to interferon-α therapy are higher in intravenous drug users than in other patients with acute hepatitis C. J Hepatol. 2005;42:323–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kamal SM, Ismail A, Graham CS, He Q, Rasenack JW, Peters T, Tawil AA, Fehr JJ, Khalifa Kel S, Madwar MM, Koziel MJ. Pegylated interferon α therapy in acute hepatitis C: relation to hepatitis C virus-specific T cell response kinetics. Hepatology. 2004;39:1721–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Tillmann HL, Thompson AJ, Patel K, Wiese M, Tenckhoff H, Nischalke HD, Lokhnygina Y, Kullig U, Göbel U, Capka E, Wiegand J, Schiefke I, Güthoff W, Grüngreiff K, König I, Spengler U, McCarthy J, Shianna KV, Goldstein DB, McHutchison JG, Timm J, Nattermann J; German Anti-D Study Group. A polymorphism near IL28B is associated with spontaneous clearance of acute hepatitis C virus and jaundice. Gastroenterolgy. 2010;139:1586–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Grebely J, Petoumenos K, Hellard M, Matthews GV, Suppiah V, Applegate T, Yeung B, Marks P, Rawlinson W, Lloyd AR, Booth D, Kaldor JM, George J, Dore GJ; ATAHC Study Group. Potential role for interleukin-28B genotype in treatment decision-making in recent hepatitis C virus infection. Hepatology. 2010;52:1216–24.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Grebely J, Page K, Sacks-Davis R, van der Loeff MS, Rice TM, Bruneau J, Morris MD, Hajarizadeh B, Amin J, Cox AL, Kim AY, McGovern BH, Schinkel J, George J, Shoukry NH, Lauer GM, Maher L, Lloyd AR, Hellard M, Dore GJ, Prins M; InC3 Study Group. The effects of female sex, viral genotype, and IL28B genotype on spontaneous clearance of acute hepatitis C virus infection. Hepatology. 2014;59:109–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Puoti M, Moioli MC, Travi G, Rossotti R. The burden of liver disease in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Semin Liver Dis. 2012;32:103–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gilleece YC, Browne RE, Asboe D, Atkins M, Mandalia S, Bower M, Gazzard BG, Nelson MR. Transmission of hepatitis C virus among HIV-positive homosexual men and response to a 24-week course of pegylated interferon and ribavirin. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005;40:41–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Serpaggi J, Chaix ML, Batisse D, Dupont C, Vallet-Pichard A, Fontaine H, Viard JP, Piketty C, Rouveix E, Rouzioux C, Weiss L, Pol S. Sexually transmitted acute infection with a clustered genotype 4 hepatitis C virus in HIV-1-infected men and inefficacy of early antiviral therapy. AIDS. 2006;20:233–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Luetkemeyer A, Hare CB, Stansell J, Tien PC, Charlesbois E, Lum P, Havlir D, Peters M. Clinical presentation and course of acute hepatitis C infection in HIV-infected patients. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006;41:31–6.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Vogel M, Nattermann J, Baumgarten A, Klausen G, Bieniek B, Schewe K, Jessen H, Boesecke C, Rausch M, Lutz T, Fenske S, Schranzo D, Kümmerle T, Schuler C, Theisen A, Mayr C, Seidel T, Rockstroh JK. Pegylated interferon-alpha for the treatment of sexually transmitted acute hepatitis C in HIV-infected individuals. Antivir Ther. 2006;11:1097–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Dominguez S, Ghosn J, Valantin MA, Schruniger A, Simon A, Bonnard P, Caumes E, Pialoux G, Benhamou Y, Thibault V, Katlama C. Efficacy of early treatment of acute hepatitis C infection with pegylated interferon and ribavirin in HIV-infected patients. AIDS. 2006;20:1157–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Matthews GV, Hellard M, Haber P, Yeung B, Marks P, Baker D, McCaughan G, Sasadeusz J, White P, Rawlinson W, Lloyd A, Kaldor J, Dore GJ; Australian Trial in Acute Hepatitis C Study Group. Characteristics and treatment outcomes among HIV-infected individuals in the Australian Trial in Acute Hepatitis C. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48:650–8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Piroth L, Larsen C, Binquet C, Alric L, Auperin I, Chaix ML, Dominguez S, Duval X, Gervais A, Ghosn J, Delarocque-Astagneau E, Pol S; Steering Committee of the HEPAIG Study. Treatment of acute hepatitis C in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: the HEPAIG study. Hepatology. 2010;52:1915–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Grebely J, Hellard M, Applegate T, Petoumenos K, Yeung B, Feld JJ, Rawlinson W, Lloyd AR, George J, Kaldor JM, Dore GJ, Matthews GV; ATAHC Study Group. Virological responses during treatment for recent hepatitis C virus: potential benefit for ribavirin use in HCV/HIV co-infection. AIDS. 2012;26:1653–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS). Guidelines 2013 (v 7.0, October 2013). http://www.eacsociety.org.
  79. 79.
    Fierer DS, Dieterich DT, Mullen MP, Branch AD, Uriel AJ, Carriero DC, van Seggelen WO, Hijdra RM, Cassagnol DG; New York Acute Hepatitis C Surveillance Network. Telaprevir in the treatment of acute hepatitis C virus infection in HIV-infected men. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;58:873–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Fabrizi F, Dixit V, Messa P, Martin P. Interferon therapy of acute hepatitis C in dialysis patients: meta-analysis. J Viral Hepat. 2012;19:784–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    De Rosa FG, Bargiacchi O, Audagnotto S, Garazzino S, Cariti G, Calleri G, Lesioba O, Belloro S, Raiteri R, Di Perri G. Twelve-week treatment of acute hepatitis C virus with pegylated interferon- alpha -2b in injection drug users. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:583–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Sagnelli
    • 1
  • T. Santantonio
    • 2
  • N. Coppola
    • 1
  • M. Fasano
    • 2
  • M. Pisaturo
    • 1
  • C. Sagnelli
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Mental Health and Public Medicine, Section of Infectious DiseasesSecond University of NaplesNaplesItaly
  2. 2.Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinic of Infectious DiseasesUniversity of FoggiaFoggiaItaly
  3. 3.Department of Experimental Medicine and Surgery “F. Magrassi e A. Lanzara”Second University of NaplesNaplesItaly

Personalised recommendations