Cytokines and neutrophils responses in influenza pneumonia
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This case report shows a striking correlation of remarkable brief high levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines coupled with increased neutrophil activation, followed by a sharp decrease in cytokine levels and increased neutrophil apoptosis associated with the favorable clinical outcomes of a patient with severe influenza infection. The host response examined in our case is not complete, given it did not assess the full spectrum of host response. The brief neutrophil and cytokine response seen in our case in the absence of antiviral therapy and in the presence of methotrexate immunosuppressive therapy rise the question as to whether the latter optimally modulated the macrophage function, resulting in a favorable outcome of severe influenza viral infection.
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