No evidence of XMRV infection in immunocompromised patients and HIV-positive individuals from Germany
- First Online:
Xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus (XMRV) has been detected in patients with prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The detection of XMRV in healthy individuals has raised concern about a possible virus transmission by blood products. However, recent studies challenge the association between XMRV and human disease. This study investigated whether or not XMRV is present in patients with altered immune function and individuals at increased risk of blood-borne viral infections in Germany.
We investigated 503 peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples from 240 patients with iatrogenic immune suppression (71 haematopoietic stem cell recipients, 132 solid organ transplant recipients, 37 others) and 311 PBMC samples from 302 patients with HIV-1 infection for the presence of proviral XMRV by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
All 814 PBMC samples from 542 patients tested negative for XMRV DNA and positive for an internal herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) control. Human genomic DNA was detected in all samples, and 90% of the samples contained >10,000 cell equivalents per XMRV PCR reaction.
Our failure to detect proviral XMRV provides evidence against the presence of XMRV in patients at increased risk of viral infections in Germany.
KeywordsXMRV Transplant recipients Immunosuppressive therapy HIV-1 infection
- 1.Urisman A, Molinaro RJ, Fischer N, Plummer SJ, Casey G, Klein EA, Malathi K, Magi-Galluzzi C, Tubbs RR, Ganem D, Silverman RH, Derisi JL. Identification of a novel Gammaretrovirus in prostate tumors of patients homozygous for R462Q RNASEL variant. PLoS Pathog. 2006;2:e25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 2.Lombardi VC, Ruscetti FW, Das Gupta J, Pfost MA, Hagen KS, Peterson DL, Ruscetti SK, Bagni RK, Petrow-Sadowski C, Gold B, Dean M, Silverman RH, Mikovits JA. Detection of an infectious retrovirus, XMRV, in blood cells of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Science. 2009;326:585–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 3.Klein HG, Dodd RY, Hollinger FB, Katz LM, Kleinman S, McCleary KK, Silverman RH, Stramer SL; AABB Interorganizational Task Force on XMRV. Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) and blood transfusion: report of the AABB interorganizational XMRV task force. Transfusion. 2011;51:654–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.Furuta RA, Miyazawa T, Sugiyama T, Kuratsune H, Ikeda Y, Sato E, Misawa N, Nakatomi Y, Sakuma R, Yasui K, Yamaguti K, Hirayama F. No association of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus with prostate cancer or chronic fatigue syndrome in Japan. Retrovirology. 2011;8:20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 10.Switzer WM, Jia H, Hohn O, Zheng H, Tang S, Shankar A, Bannert N, Simmons G, Hendry RM, Falkenberg VR, Reeves WC, Heneine W. Absence of evidence of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus infection in persons with chronic fatigue syndrome and healthy controls in the United States. Retrovirology. 2010;7:57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 11.Steffen I, Tyrrell DL, Stein E, Montalvo L, Lee TH, Zhou Y, Lu K, Switzer WM, Tang S, Jia H, Hockman D, Santer DM, Logan M, Landi A, Law J, Houghton M, Simmons G. No evidence for XMRV nucleic acids, infectious virus or anti-XMRV antibodies in Canadian patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. PLoS One. 2011;6:e27870.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.Henrich TJ, Li JZ, Felsenstein D, Kotton CN, Plenge RM, Pereyra F, Marty FM, Lin NH, Grazioso P, Crochiere DM, Eggers D, Kuritzkes DR, Tsibris AM. Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus prevalence in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome or chronic immunomodulatory conditions. J Infect Dis. 2010;202:1478–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 15.Barnes E, Flanagan P, Brown A, Robinson N, Brown H, McClure M, Oxenius A, Collier J, Weber J, Günthard HF, Hirschel B, Fidler S, Phillips R, Frater J. Failure to detect xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus in blood of individuals at high risk of blood-borne viral infections. J Infect Dis. 2010;202:1482–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 17.Tang S, Zhao J, Viswanath R, Nyambi PN, Redd AD, Dastyar A, Spacek LA, Quinn TC, Wang X, Wood O, Gaddam D, Devadas K, Hewlett IK. Absence of detectable xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus in plasma or peripheral blood mononuclear cells of human immunodeficiency virus Type 1-infected blood donors or individuals in Africa. Transfusion. 2011;51:463–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar