Initial management of and outcome in patients with pneumococcal bacteremia: a retrospective study at a Swiss university hospital, 2003–2009
- 210 Downloads
The aim of this quality control study was to assess the time to initial diagnostic procedures and the time to the first dose of antibiotics in patients with pneumococcal bacteremia, and to investigate whether the timeliness of these interventions influenced outcome.
We retrospectively studied patient characteristics, chronological sequence of diagnostic and therapeutic steps, and the course of disease of all patients with pneumococcal bacteremia at a Swiss university hospital between 2003 and 2009, and we analyzed associations between these factors and the length of hospital stay (LOS) and mortality.
A total of 102 episodes of pneumococcal bacteremia in 98 patients were analyzed, of whom 15.7% died during hospitalization. The median time (interquartile range [IQR]) to the first antibiotic dose was 4.0 (2.0–5.9) h, and the median times (IQR]) to blood cultures, chest radiograph, lumbar puncture, and brain computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were 1.4 (0.5–3.3), 2.5 (1.2–4.2), 4.2 (2.7–7.2), and 2.3 (0.6–6.2) h, respectively. The time to diagnostic procedures and therapy were not associated with LOS or death. Risk factors for death in the univariable analysis were: Charlson comorbidity index [odds ratio [OR] (95% confidence interval) per unit increase, 1.3 (1.1–1.6)], neutropenia [OR 10.1 (2.0–51.0)], human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection [OR 3.9 (1.1–13.8)], chronic respiratory disease [OR 4.4 (1.2–16.0)], chronic liver disease [OR 3.2 (1.0–9.7)], smoking [OR 3.8 (1.1–13.5)], injection drug use [OR 9.7 (1.5–63.7)], and antibiotic therapy within 6 months before admission [OR 4.0 (1.3–12.5)]. The multivariable analysis revealed age >60 years (P = 0.048) and alcoholism (P = 0.009) as risks for prolonged LOS.
The outcome of pneumococcal bacteremia may be more influenced by patient characteristics than by minor differences in the timeliness of initial diagnostic and therapeutic measures within the first several hours after hospital admission.
KeywordsStreptococcus pneumoniae Bacteremia Outcome Sepsis Treatment quality Benchmark
We thank the staff of the emergency unit, hospital wards, and intensive care units for the access to the patient data. Furthermore, we thank the Swiss National Reference Center for Invasive Pneumococci (NRCP) at the Institute of Microbiology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland, for the serotyping and susceptibility results.
Conflict of interest
The authors have declared that no conflict of interest exists.
- 11.Chaudhuri A, Martinez-Martin P, Kennedy PG, Andrew Seaton R, Portegies P, Bojar M, et al. EFNS guideline on the management of community-acquired bacterial meningitis: report of an EFNS Task Force on acute bacterial meningitis in older children and adults. Eur J Neurol. 2008;15:649–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 17.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) (2007) Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, seventeenth informational supplement. M100-S17. CLSI, Wayne, PAGoogle Scholar
- 23.Dellit TH, Owens RC, McGowan JE Jr, Gerding DN, Weinstein RA, Burke JP, et al. Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America guidelines for developing an institutional program to enhance antimicrobial stewardship. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:159–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar