Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

, Volume 14, Issue 6, pp 719–733 | Cite as

Adult Stem Cells of Orofacial Origin: Current Knowledge and Limitation and Future Trend in Regenerative Medicine

  • Mehdi Ebrahimi
  • Michael Botelho
Review Article


Stem cell research is one of the most rapidly expanding field of medicine which provides significant opportunities for therapeutic and regenerative applications. Different types of stem cells have been isolated investigating their accessibility, control of the differentiation pathway and additional immunomodulatory properties. Bulk of the literature focus has been on the study and potential applications of adult stem cells (ASC) because of their low immunogenicity and reduced ethical considerations. This review paper summarizes the basic available literature on different types of ASC with special focus on stem cells from dental and orofacial origin. ASC have been isolated from different sources, however, isolation of ASC from orofacial tissues has provided a novel promising alternative. These cells offer a great potential in the future of therapeutic and regenerative medicine because of their remarkable availability at low cost while allowing minimally invasive isolation procedures. Furthermore, their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory potential is of particular interest. However, there are conflicting reports in the literature regarding their particular biology and full clinical potentials. Sound knowledge and higher control over proliferation and differentiation mechanisms are prerequisites for clinical applications of these cells. Therefore, further standardized basic and translational studies are required to increase the reproducibility and reduce the controversies of studies, which in turn facilitate comparison of related literature and enhance further development in the field.


Orofacial stem cells Adult stem cell Regenerative medicine Stem cell therapy 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical statement

There are no animal experiments carried out for this article.


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Copyright information

© The Korean Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Society and Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Oral Rehabilitation, Faculty of Dentistry, Prince Philip Dental HospitalThe University of Hong KongSai Ying PunHong Kong

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