Antioxidant profile, antioxidant activity, and physicochemical characteristics of strawberries from different cultivars and harvest locations

  • Young-Jun Kim
  • Youngjae ShinEmail author


Three major cultivars of strawberries (‘Yukbo,’ ‘Seolhyang,’ and ‘Janghee’) harvested from three different locations (Gyeongsan, Nonsan, and Daegu) in Korea were used for this study. The soluble solid content of ‘Yukbo’ harvested from Nonsan was the highest among the samples. The ranges of titratable acidity and pH from the samples were 0.48–0.65 and 3.70–4.01 %, respectively. Fructose, glucose, and citric acid contents of ‘Janghee’ harvested from Daegu were significantly higher than other strawberries (p < 0.05). The ascorbic acid contents of ‘Seolhyang’ and ‘Janghee’ grown in Nonsan were significantly higher than in other strawberries (p < 0.05). Total flavonoid and phenolic concentrations, and total antioxidant activities of ‘Janghee’ harvested from Daegu were significantly higher than other samples (p < 0.05). Total flavonoids and total phenolics were highly correlated with the antioxidant activities, and the relationships between total flavonoids and total phenolics were also strong. Cultivars and harvest locations may affect to the physicochemical quality and antioxidant activity of the fruit.


Antioxidant Ascorbic acid Cultivar Harvest location Strawberry 



The present study was conducted with support from the research fund of Dankook University in 2013.


  1. Aaby K, Ekeberg D, Skrede G (2007) Characterization of phenolic compounds in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruits by different HPLC detectors and contribution of individual compounds to total antioxidant capacity. J Agric Food Chem 55:4395–4406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Asard H, May J, Smirnoff N (2004) Vitamin C—function and biochemistry in animals and plants. BIOS Scientific Publishers, Oxford, pp 65–82Google Scholar
  3. Bordonaba JG, Terry LA (2010) Manipulating the taste-related composition of strawberry fruits (Fragaria x ananassa) from different cultivars using deficit irrigation. Food Chem 122:1020–1026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boyles MJ, Wrolstad RE (1993) Anthocyanin composition of red raspberry juice—influences of cultivar, processing, and environmental-factors. J Food Sci 58:1135–1141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cheel J, Theoduloz C, Rodriguez JA, Caligari PDS, Schmeda-Hirschmann G (2007) Free radical scavenging activity and phenolic content in achenes and thalamus from Fragaria chiloensis ssp chiloensis, F. vesca and F. × ananassa cv. Chandler. Food Chem 102:36–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Choi GC, Kang NJ, Moon BY, Kwon JK, Rho IR, Park KS, Lee SY (2013) Changes in fruit quality and antioxidant activity depending on ripening levels, storage temperature, and storage periods in strawberry cultivars. Korean J Hortic Sci Technol 31:194–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cordenunsi BR, Oliveira do Nascimento JR, Genovese MI, Lajolo FM (2002) Influence of cultivar on quality parameters and chemical composition of strawberry fruits grown in Brazil. J Agric Food Chem 50:2581–2586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cordenunsi BR, Genovese MI, Nascimento JRO, Hassimotto NMA, Santos RJ, Lajolo FM (2005) Effects of temperature on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of three strawberry cultivars. Food Chem 91:113–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Floegel A, Kim DO, Chung SJ, Koo SI, Chun OK (2011) Comparison of ABTS/DPPH assays to measure antioxidant capacity in popular antioxidant-rich US foods. J Food Compos Anal 24:1043–1048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gil MI, Holcroft DM, Kader AA (1997) Changes in strawberry anthocyanins and other polyphenols in response to carbon dioxide treatments. J Agric Food Chem 45:1662–1667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Green A (1971) Soft fruits. In: Hulme AC (ed) The biochemistry of fruits and their products. Academic Press, London, pp 375–410Google Scholar
  12. Hagg M, Ylikoski S, Kumpulainen J (1995) Vitamin C content in fruits and berries consumed in Finland. J Food Compos Anal 8:12–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hakkinen SH, Torronen AR (2000) Content of flavonols and selected phenolic acids in strawberries and Vaccinium species: influence of cultivar, cultivation site and technique. Food Res Int 33:517–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hakkinen SH, Karenlampi SO, Mykkanen HM, Heinonen IM, Torronen AR (2000) Ellagic acid content in berries: influence of domestic processing and storage. Eur Food Res Technol 212:75–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hancock RD, Viola R (2005) Improving the nutritional value of crops through enhancement of l-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) content: rationale and biotechnological opportunities. J Agric Food Chem 53:5248–5257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hannum SM (2004) Potential impact of strawberries on human health: a review of the science. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 44:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hernández JL, González-Castro MJ, Alba IN, Garcia CC (1998) High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of mono- and oligosaccharides in vegetables with evaporative light-scattering detection and refractive index detection. J Chromatogr Sci 36:293–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Huang D, Ou B, Hampsch-Woodill M, Flanagan JA, Prior RL (2002) High-throughput assay of oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) using a multichannel liquid handling system coupled with a microplate fluorescence reader in 96-well format. J Agric Food Chem 50:4437–4444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kim YJ, Kim HW (2003) Estimation of measurement uncertainty in vitamin C analysis from vegetable and fruit juice. Korean J Food Sci Technol 35:1053–1059Google Scholar
  20. Lee SK, Kader AA (2000) Preharvest and postharvest factors influencing vitamin C content of horticultural crops. Postharvest Biol Technol 20:207–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lee HH, Hong SI, Kim D (2013) Storage quality of Sulhyang strawberries as affected by high O2 atmosphere packaging. Korean J Food Sci Technol 45:191–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Meyers KJ, Watkins CB, Pritts MP, Liu RH (2003) Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of strawberries. J Agric Food Chem 5:6887–6892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mitcham EJ (2004) Strawberry. In: Gross KC, Wang CY, Saltveit M (eds) The commercial storage of fruits, vegetables, and florist and nursery crops. USDA, ARS Agriculture Handbook Number 66Google Scholar
  24. Moing A, Renaud C, Gaudillère M, Raymond P, Roudeillac P, Denoyes-Rothan B (2001) Biochemical changes during fruit development of four strawberry cultivars. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 126:394–403Google Scholar
  25. Perkins-Veazie P (1995) Growth and ripening of strawberry fruit. Hortic Rev 17:267–297Google Scholar
  26. Pritts MP, Watkins CB (1998) Harvesting, handling, and transporting fresh fruit. In: Pritts M, Handley D (eds) Strawberry production guide. Northeast Regional Agricultural Engineering Service, Ithaca, pp 104–108Google Scholar
  27. Rekika D, Khanizadeh S, Deschenes M, Levasseur A, Charles MT, Tsao R, Yang R (2005) Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of selected strawberry genotypes. Hortscience 40:1777–1781Google Scholar
  28. Shin Y (2012) Correlation between antioxidant concentrations and activities of yuja (Citrus junos Sieb ex Tanaka) and other citrus fruit. Food Sci Biotechnol 21:1477–1482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Shin Y, Liu RH, Nock JF, Holliday D, Watkins CB (2007) Temperature and relative humidity effects on quality, total ascorbic acid, phenolics and flavonoid concentrations, and antioxidant activity of strawberry. Postharvest Biol Technol 45:349–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Shin Y, Ryu JA, Liu RH, Nock JF, Watkins CB (2008) Harvest maturity, storage temperature and relative humidity affect fruit quality, antioxidant contents and activity, and inhibition of cell proliferation of strawberry fruit. Postharvest Biol Technol 49:201–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sun J, Chu YF, Wu X, Liu RH (2002) Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common fruits. J Agric Food Chem 50:7449–7454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wang SY, Lin HS (2000) Antioxidant activity fruits and leaves of blackberry, raspberry and strawberry varies with cultivar and developmental stage. J Agric Food Chem 47:140–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wang H, Cao G, Prior RL (1996) Total antioxidant capacity of fruits. J Agric Food Chem 44:701–705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wu R, Frei B, Kennedy JA, Zhao Y (2010) Effects of refrigerated storage and processing technologies on the bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacities of ‘Marion’ and ‘Evergreen’ blackberries. LWT-Food Sci Technol 43:1253–1264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Yang MH, Kang YJ (2007) Study on the quality improvement of acidic citrus juices, Citrus natsudaidai and Citrus grandis, by bipolar membrane electrodialysis. Korean J Food Sci Technol 39:630–636Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental HorticultureDankook UniversityCheonanRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Agricultural BiotechnologySeoul National UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations