Advertisement

Development of mixed anaerobic culture for degrading high concentrations of chlorophenols

  • M. Goel
  • M. Ramesh
  • J. S. Sudarsan
  • R. Kanawade
  • S. NithiyananthamEmail author
Original Paper
  • 22 Downloads

Abstract

This study details the development of mixed anaerobic culture capable of degrading high concentrations of chlorophenols; 4-chlorophenol (MCP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were used for that purpose. The role of glucose concentration and the relative potential of mixed culture for acclimatization of different chlorophenols under anaerobic conditions were studied. Methane production, pH and their reduction in concentrations of glucose and chlorophenols were measured at regular intervals. It was observed that after 350 days of acclimatization, anaerobic cultures degraded up to 200 ppm MCP, 200 ppm DCP and 250 ppm PCP. It was also found that the biogenic substrate such as glucose increased the rate of chlorophenols acclimatization and degradation.

Keywords

Anaerobic degradation Chlorophenols Mixed culture Glucose 

Notes

Acknowledgement

The authors are grateful to acknowledge The Management, SRM University for providing the facility to complete this work.

References

  1. Armenante PM, Kafkewitz D, Lewandowski GA, Jou CJL (1999) Anaerobic-aerobic treatment of halogenated phenolic compounds. Water Res 33:681–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arora PK, Bae H (2014) Bacterial degradation of chlorophenols and their derivatives. Microb Cell Fact 13:31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arora PK, Sharma A, Mehta R, Shenoy BD, Srivastava A, Singh VP (2012) Metabolism of 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol in a gram-positive bacterium, Exiguobacterium sp. PMA. Microb Cell Fact 11:150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Evans WC (1977) Biochemistry of bacterial catabolism of aromatic compounds in anaerobic environment. Nature 270:17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Feigelson L, Muszkat L, Muszkat KA (2000) Dye photo-enhancement of TiO-photocatalyzed degradation of 2 organic pollutants: the organobromine herbicide bromacil. Water Sci Technol 42(1–2):275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Greer CW, Hawari J, Samson R (1990) Influence of environmental factors on 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid degradation by Pseudomonas cepacia isolated from peat. Arch Microbiol 154:317–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Guha S, Peters CA, Jaffé RP (1999) Multisubstrate biodegradation kinetics of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene mixtures. Biotechnol Bioeng 65:491–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hema M, Prasath MD, Arivoli S (2009) Adsorption of malachite green onto carbon prepared from borassus bark. Arab J Sci Eng 34:31–42Google Scholar
  9. Hu Z, Ferraina RA, Ericson JF, Smets BF (2005) Effect of long-term exposure, biogenic substrate presence, and electron acceptor conditions on the biodegradation of multiple substituted benzoates and phenolates. Water Res 39:3501–3510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Irfanudeen NM, Prakash IA, Saundaryan R, Alagarraj K, Goel M (2015) The potential of using low cost naturally available biogenic substrates for biological removal of chlorophenol. Bioresour Technol 196:707–711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jan D, Igor N (2015) The Gibb’s free energy of formation of halogenated benzenes, benzoates and phenols and their potential role as electron acceptors in anaerobic environment. Biodegradation 26:15–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jothimani P, Kalaichelvan G, Bhaskaran A, Augustine selvaseelan D, Ramasamy K (2003) Anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic compounds. Indian J Exp Biol 41:1046–1067Google Scholar
  13. Juteau P, Baudet R, McSween G, Lepine F, Bisaillon J-G (1995) Study of the reductive dechlorination of pentachlorophenol by a methanogenic consortium. Can J Microbiol 41:862–868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kumar A, Das A, Goel M, Kumar KR, Subramanyam B, Sudarsan JS (2013) Recovery of nutrients from wastewater by struvite crystallization. Nat Environ Pollut Technol 12:479–482Google Scholar
  15. Lopez J, Monsalvo VM, Puyol D, Mohendano AF, Rodriguez JJ (2013) Low temperature anaerobic treatment of low-strength pentachlorophenol-bearing wastewater. Bioresour Technol 140:349–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Marsden WL, Gray PP, Nippard GJ, Quinlan MR (1982) Evaluation of the DNS method for analysing lignocellulosic hydrolysates. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 32(7–12):1016–1022Google Scholar
  17. McCarty PL (1985) Historical trends in the treatment of dilute wastewaters. In: Switzenbaum MS (ed) Proceedings of the seminar/workshop on anaerobic treatment of sewage, Amherst, USA, pp 3–16Google Scholar
  18. Menke B, Rehm HJ (1992) Degradation of mixtures of monochlorophenols and phenols as substrates for free and immobilized cells of Alcaligenes sp. A 7–2 in soil. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 37:655–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Movahedyan H, Assadi A, Amin MM (2008) Effects of 4-chlorophenol loadings on acclimation of biomass with optimized fixed time sequencing batch reactor, Iran. J Environ Health Sci Eng 5(4):225–234Google Scholar
  20. Mukesh G, Hu H, Arun SM, Bhowmick Ray M (2004) Sonochemical decomposition of volatile and non-volatile organic compounds—a comparative study. Water Res 38(19):4247–4261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mukesh G, Ramesh M, Sreekrishnan TR (2009) Mixed culture acclimatization and biodegradation of chlorophenols in shake flasks: effect of the inoculum source. Pract Period Hazard Toxic Radioact Waste Manag 13(1):29–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mukesh G, Chovelon JM, Ferronato C, Bayard R, Sreekrishnan TR (2010) The remediation of wastewater containing 4-chlorophenol using integrated photocacatalytic and biological treatment. J Photochem Photobiol B 98(1):1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mukesh G, Ashutosh D, Ravikumar K, Asthana A (2014) A study on the enhancement of sonochemical degradation of eosin B using other advanced oxidation processes. Desalination and Water Treatment 52:6770–6776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Müller C, Petruschka L, Cuypers H, Burchhardt G, Herrmann H (1996) Carbon catabolite repression of phenol degradation in Pseudomonas putida is mediated by the inhibition of the activator protein PhlR. J Bacteriol 178:2030–2036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nicholson DK, Woods SL, Istok JD, Peek DC (1992) Reductive dechlorination of chlorophenols by a pentachlorophenol-acclimated methanogenic consortium. Appl Environ Microbiol 58(7):2280–2286Google Scholar
  26. Nijenhuis I, Renpenning J, Kummel S et al (2016) Recent advances in multi-element compound-specific stable isotope analysis of organohalides: achievements, challenges and prospects for assessing environmental sources and transformation. Trends Env Anal Chem 11:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nijenhuis I, Stollberg R, Lechner U (2018) Anaerobic microbial dehalogenation and its key players in the contaminated Bitterfeld-Wolfen megasite. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 94:fiy012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Olaniran AO, Igbinosa EO (2011) Chlorophenols and other related derivatives of environmental concern: properties, distribution and microbial degradation processes. Chemosphere 83:1297–1306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Peng XX, Jia XS (2013) Optimization of parameters for anaerobic co-metabolic degradation of TBBPA. Bioresour Technol 148:386–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sahinkaya E, Dilek FB (2006) Effect of biogenic substrate concentration on the performance of sequencing batch reactor treating 4-CP and 2,4-DCP mixtures. J Hazard Mater 128:258–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Stringfellow WT, Aitken MD (1995) Competitive metabolism of naphthalene, methylnaphthalenes and fluorene by phenanthrene-degrading pseudomonads. Appl Environ Microbiol 61:357–362Google Scholar
  32. Sudarsan JS, Deeptha VT, Maurya D, Goel M, Ravi Kumar K, Ashutosh D (2015) Study on treatment of electroplating wastewater using constructed wetland. Nat Environ Pollut Technol 14:95–100Google Scholar
  33. Tingting G, Jiangyuan H, Yongmei Q, Xueyan G, Lin M, Chen Z, Sajid N, Dejun H (2017) The toxic effects of chlorophenols and associated mechanisms in fish. Aquat Toxicol 184:78–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Titus MP, Molina VG, Baños MA, Giménez J, Esplugas S (2004) Degradation of chlorophenols by means of advanced oxidation processes: a general review. Appl Catal B Environ 47:219–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Tong L, Li S, Bettina M, Anna S (2017) Importance of inoculum source and initial community structure for biogas production from agricultural substrates. Bioresour Technol 245:768–777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Unell M, Nordin K, Jernberg C, Stenström J, Jansson JK (2008) Degradation of mixtures of phenolic compounds by Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6. Biodegradation 19:495–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Verhagen FJM, Swarts HJ, Wijnberg JBPA, Field JA (1998) Biotransformation of the major fungal metabolite 3,5-Dichloro-p-anisyl alcohol under anaerobic conditions and its role in formation of bis(3,5-dichloro-4-hydroxyphenyl)methane. Appl Environ Microbiol 64(9):3225–3231Google Scholar
  38. Wang SJ, Loh KC (1999) Modeling the role of metabolic intermediates in kinetics of phenol biodegradation. Enzym. Microb. Technol. 25:177–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Webb BN, Ballinger JW, Kim E, Belchik SM, Lam KS, Youn B, Nissen MS, Xun L, Kang C (2010) Characterization of chlorophenol 4-monooxygenase (TftD) and NADH:FAD oxidoreductase (TftC) of Burkholderia cepacia AC1100. J Biol Chem 285(3):2014–2027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Westerholm M, Levén L, Schnürer A (2012) Bioaugmentation of syntrophic acetate-oxidizing culture in biogas reactors exposed to increasing levels of ammonia. Appl Microbiol 78(21):7619–7625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Xuran L, Qiuxiang X, Donbo W, Yanxin W, Qi Y, Yiwenm L, Ailin W, Xiaoming L, Hailong L, Guangming Z (2019a) Unveiling the mechanisms of how cationic polyacrylamide affects short-chain fatty acids accumulation during long-term anaerobic fermentation of waste activated sludge. Water Res 15:142–151Google Scholar
  42. Xuran L, Qiuxiang X, Dongbo W, Qi Y, Yanxin W, Jingnan Y, Yiwen L, Qilin W, Bing-Jie N, Xiaoming L, Hailong L, Guojing Y (2019b) Enhanced short-chain fatty acids from waste activated sludge by heat–CaO2 advanced thermal hydrolysis pretreatment: parameter optimization, mechanisms, and implications. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 73:3544–3555Google Scholar
  43. Xuran L, Qiuxiang X, Wang D, Yang Q, Wu Y, Li Y, Fu Q, Yang F, Liu Y, Ni B-J, Wang Q, Li X (2019c) Thermal-alkaline pretreatment of polyacrylamide flocculated waste activated sludge: process optimization and effects on anaerobic digestion and polyacrylamide degradation. Bioresour Technol 281:158–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Goel
    • 1
    • 4
  • M. Ramesh
    • 2
  • J. S. Sudarsan
    • 3
  • R. Kanawade
    • 4
  • S. Nithiyanantham
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Engineering and MathsSheffield Hallam UniversitySheffieldUK
  2. 2.Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate ChangeNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.School of Construction Management (SOCM)National Institute of Construction Management and Research (NICMAR)PuneIndia
  4. 4.Department of Chemical EngineeringShroff S. R. Rotary Institute of Chemical Technology, ValiaBharuchIndia
  5. 5.Post Graduate and Research Department of Physics (Ultrasonic/NDT and Bio-Physics Divisions)Thiru.Vi.Kalyanasundaram Govt Arts and Science College (Affiliation - Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, India)ThiruvarurIndia

Personalised recommendations