Application of bacterial cellulose–silver nanoprism composite for detoxification of endosulfan and inactivation of Escherichia coli cells

  • N. Tyagi
  • P. Thangadurai
  • S. SureshEmail author
Original Paper


This study demonstrates the suitability of a bacterial cellulose–silver nanoprism composite for detoxification of endosulfan and disinfection of water spiked with Escherichia coli cells. Nanoprisms were synthesized using sodium borohydride reduction in combination with hydrogen peroxide-assisted etching. Characterization of nanoparticles using absorption spectroscopy and electron microscopy revealed the presence of silver nanoprisms ranging from 7 to 37 nm. Analysis using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy revealed the successful doping of silver nanoprisms onto bacterial cellulose pellicles through overnight immersion of the polymer in the colloidal solution containing free nanoparticles. The bacterial cellulose–silver nanoprism composite (2.5 mg of Ag0/g of bacterial cellulose) along with Mg0 system removed > 99% of 10 mg L−1 of endosulfan after 45 min of reaction by transforming into its end product, bicyclo-hept-5-ene-2,3-diol. The BC–Ag0 composite exhibited biocidal activity against E. coli (3 × 104 CFU mL−1), and the extent of reduction was ~ 99% after 65 min of contact. The BC–Ag0 composite could be reused successfully for 5–6 cycles of degradation of endosulfan with an efficacy of ~ 86% and 6–7 cycles of disinfection with > 99% antimicrobial activity against E. coli. The leaching of silver was below the permissible limit (0.1 mg L−1). Results obtained from this study suggest that the bacterial cellulose–silver nanoprism composite could be used for remediation of water contaminated with chlorinated pesticides such as endosulfan and infectious bacteria. It can be concluded that impregnation of silver nanoprisms on bacterial cellulose encourages reuse of nanoparticles, reduces environmental risks and makes the process more economical.

Graphic Abstract


Cellulose Dechlorination Disinfection Nanoparticles Silver 



The authors acknowledge Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IIT Bombay) for funding this project. The authors wish to thank Sophisticated Analytical Instrument Facility (SAIF) and Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Sciences (MEMS) for extending their facilities during the course of this project. Services offered by Chemical Engineering Department, IIT Bombay, for GC–MS analyses and characterization of bacterial cellulose are greatly appreciated. This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

Supplementary material

13762_2019_2510_MOESM1_ESM.docx (8.7 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 8675 kb)


  1. Asharani PV, Wu YL, Gong ZY, Valiyaveettil S (2008) Toxicity of silver nanoparticles in zebrafish models. Nanotechnology 19(25):1–8Google Scholar
  2. Bahlol HS, Foda MF, Ma J, Han H (2019) Robust synthesis of size-dispersal triangular silver nanoprisms via chemical reduction route and their cytotoxicity. Nanomaterials 9(5):674Google Scholar
  3. Barud HS, Regiani T, Marques RFC, Lustri WR, Messaddeq Y, Ribeiro SJL (2011) Antimicrobial bacterial cellulose-silver nanoparticles composite membranes. J Nanomat 2011:721631. Google Scholar
  4. Begum A, Gautam SK (2011) Dechlorination of endocrine disrupting chemicals using Mg0/ZnCl2 bimetallic system. Water Res 45(7):2383–2391Google Scholar
  5. Booshehri AY, Wang R, Xu R (2015) Simple method of deposition of CuO nanoparticles on a cellulose paper and its antibacterial activity. Chem Eng J 262:999–1008Google Scholar
  6. Bootharaju MS, Pradeep T (2012) Understanding the degradation pathway of the pesticide, chlorpyrifos by noble metal nanoparticles. Langmuir 28:2671–2679Google Scholar
  7. Chen S, Zhou B, Hu W, Zhang W, Yin N, Wang H (2013) Polyol mediated synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles templated by bacterial cellulose. Carbohydr Polym 92(2):1953–1959Google Scholar
  8. Cong L, Guo J, Liu J, Shi H, Wang M (2015) Rapid degradation of endosulfan by zero-valent zinc in water and soil. J Environ Manag 150:451–455Google Scholar
  9. Dankovich TA, Gray DK (2011) Bactericidal paper impregnated with silver nanoparticles for point-of-use water treatment. Environ Sci Technol 45(5):1992–1998Google Scholar
  10. De Pedro ZM, Diaz E, Mohedano AF, Casas JA, Rodriguez JJ (2011) Compared activity and stability of Pd/Al2O3 and Pd/AC catalysts in 4-chlorophenol hydrodechlorination in different pH media. Appl Catal B 103(1–2):128–135Google Scholar
  11. Dong PV, Ha CH, Binh LT, Kasbohm J (2012) Chemical synthesis and antibacterial activity of novel-shaped nanoparticles. Int Nano Lett 2:1–9Google Scholar
  12. Doong R-A, Saha S, Lee C-H, Lee H-P (2015) Mesoporous silica supported bimetallic Pd/Fe for enhanced dechlorination of tetrachloroethylene. RSC Adv 5:90797–90805Google Scholar
  13. Du J, Bao J, Tong M, Yuan S (2013) Dechlorination of pentachlorophenol by palladium/iron nanoparticles immobilized in a membrane synthesized by sequential and simultaneous reduction of trivalent iron and divalent palladium ions. Environ Eng Sci 30(7):350–356Google Scholar
  14. Gautam SK, Suresh S (2007) Studies on dechlorination of DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane) using magnesium/palladium bimetallic system. J Hazard Mater 139(1):146–153Google Scholar
  15. Giraldo JP, Landry MP, Faltermeier SM, McNicholas TP, Iverson NM, Boghossian AA, Reuel NF, Hilmer AJ, Sen F, Brew JA, Strano MS (2014) Plant nanobionics approach to augment photosynthesis and biochemical sensing. Nat Mater 13:400–408Google Scholar
  16. Gomez-Quero S, Cardenas-Lizana F, Keane MA (2011) Liquid phase catalytic hydrodechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol over Pd/Al2O3: Batch vs continuous operation. Chem Eng J 166(3):1044–1051Google Scholar
  17. Griffitt RJ, Luo J, Gao J, Bonzongo JC, Barber DS (2008) Effects of particle composition and species on toxicity of metallic nanomaterials in aquatic organisms. Environ Toxicol Chem 27:1972–1978Google Scholar
  18. Huang Q, Liu W, Peng P, Huang W (2013) Reductive dechlorination of tetrachlorobisphenol A by Pd/Fe bimetallic catalysts. J Hazard Mater 262(22):634–641Google Scholar
  19. Huang C-C, Lo S-L, Lien H-L (2015) Vitamin B12-mediated hydrodechlorination of dichloromethane by bimetallic Cu/Al particles. Chem Eng J 273:413–420Google Scholar
  20. Jung HI, Jeong JH, Lee OM, Park GT, Kim KK, Park HC, Lee SM, Kim YG, Son HJ (2010) Influence of glycerol on production and structural-physical properties of cellulose from Acetobacter sp. V6 cultured in shake flasks. Bioresour Technol 101:3602–3608Google Scholar
  21. Kathiresan K, Manivannan S, Nabeel MA, Dhivya B (2009) Studies on silver nanoparticles synthesized by a marine fungus, Penicillium fellutanum isolated from coastal mangrove sediment. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 71(1):133–137Google Scholar
  22. Kotz L, Kaiser G, Tschopel P, Tolg G (1972) Theory of sample preparation using acid digestion, pressure digestion and microwave digestion (microwave decomposition). Anal Chem 260:207–209Google Scholar
  23. Kung C, Lin P, John F, Xue Y, Yu X (2014) Biosensors and bioelectronics preparation and characterization of three dimensional graphene foam supported platinum-ruthenium bimetallic nanocatalysts for hydrogen peroxide based electrochemical biosensors. Biosens Bioelectron 52:1–7Google Scholar
  24. Kwok KWH, Auffan M, Badireddy AR, Nelson CM, Wiesner MR, Chilkoti A, Liu J, Marinakos SM, Hinton DE (2012) Uptake of silver nanoparticles and toxicity to early life stages of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes): effect of coating materials. Aquat Toxicol 120–121:59–66Google Scholar
  25. Kyung D, Sihn Y, Kim S, Bae S, Amin MT, Alazba AA, Lee W (2016) Synergistic effect of nano-sized mackinawite with cyano-cobalamin in cement slurries for reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethylene. J Hazard Mater 311:1–10Google Scholar
  26. Lekamge S, Miranda AF, Abraham A, Li V, Shukla R, Bansal V, Nugegoda D (2018) The toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to three freshwater invertebrates with different life Strategies: Hydra vulgaris, Daphnia carinata, and Paratya australiensis. Front Environ Sci 6 Article id 152Google Scholar
  27. Li Z, Wang L, Chen S, Fang C, Chen S, Yin N, Yang J, Wang H, Xu Y (2015) Facilely green synthesis of nanoparticles into bacterial cellulose. Cellulose 22(1):373–383Google Scholar
  28. Lien HL, Zhang WX (2005) Hydrodechlorination of chlorinated ethanes by nanoscale Pd/Fe bimetallic particles. J Environ Eng ASCE 131(1):4–10Google Scholar
  29. Liu L, Liu Z, Bai H, Sun DD (2012) Concurrent filtration and solar photocatalytic disinfection/degradation using high-performance Ag/TiO2 nanofiber membrane. Water Res 46:1101–1112Google Scholar
  30. Llorens A, Lloret E, Picouet P, Fernandes A (2012) Study of the antifungal potential of novel cellulose/copper composites as absorbent materials for fruit juices. Int J Food Microbiol 158(2):113–119Google Scholar
  31. Maneerung T, Tokura S, Rujiravanit R (2008) Impregnation of silver nanoparticles into bacterial cellulose for antimicrobial wound dressing. Carbohydr Polym 72(1):43–51Google Scholar
  32. Mazzola PG, Penna TCV, Martins AMDS (2003) Determination of decimal reduction time (D value) of chemical agents used in hospitals for disinfection purposes. BMC Infect Dis 3:24–34Google Scholar
  33. Metraux GS, Mirkin CA (2005) Rapid thermal synthesis of silver nanoprisms with chemically tailorable thickness. Adv Mater 17(4):412–415Google Scholar
  34. Nunez-Carmona E, Bertuna A, Abbatangelo M, Sberveglieri V, Comini E, Sberveglieri G (2019) BC-MOS: the novel bacterial cellulose based MOS gas sensors. Mater Lett 237:69–71Google Scholar
  35. Pal S, Tak YK, Song JM (2007) Does the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles depend on the shape of the nanoparticle? A study of the gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol 73(6):1712–1720Google Scholar
  36. Pappas RS (2012) Sample preparation problem solving for inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with liquid introduction systems I. Solubility, chelation, and memory effects. Spectrosc Springf 27(5):20–31Google Scholar
  37. Patel U, Suresh S (2006) Dechlorination of chlorophenols by magnesium-silver bimetallic system. J Colloid Interface Sci 299(1):249–259Google Scholar
  38. Patel UD, Suresh S (2008) Complete dechlorination of pentachlorophenol using palladized bacterial cellulose in a rotating catalyst contact reactor. J Colloid Interface Sci 319(2):462–469Google Scholar
  39. Pinto RJB, Marques PAAP, Neto CP, Trindade T, Daina S, Sadocco P (2009) Antibacterial activity of nanocomposites of silver and bacterial or vegetable cellulosic fibers. Acta Biomater 5(6):2279–2289Google Scholar
  40. Pulit-Prociak J, Bananch M (2016) Silver nanoparticles-a material of the future…? Open Chem 14(1):76–91Google Scholar
  41. Qian H, Anwer S, Bharath G, Iqbal S, Chen L (2018) Nanoporous Ag-Au bimetallic triangular nanoprisms synthesized by galvanic replacement for plasmonic applications. J Nanomat 2018:1263942. Google Scholar
  42. Quang DV, Sarawade PB, Jeon SJ, Kim SH, Kim JK, Chai YG, Kim HT (2013) Effective water disinfection using silver nanoparticle containing silica beads. Appl Surf Sci 266:280–287Google Scholar
  43. Rai M, Yadav A, Gade A (2009) Silver nanoparticles as a new generation of antimicrobials. Biotechnol Adv 27(1):76–83Google Scholar
  44. Rekha CR, Nayar VU, Gopchandran KG (2018) Synthesis of highly stable silver nanorods and their application as SERS substrates. J Sci Adv Mater Dev 3:96–205Google Scholar
  45. Schumann DA, Wippermann J, Klemm DO, Kramer F, Koth D, Kosmehl H, Wahlers T, Salehi-Gelani S (2008) Artificial vascular implants from bacterial cellulose: preliminary results of small arterial substitutes. Cellulose 16:877–885Google Scholar
  46. Shankar S, Oun AA, Rhim JW (2018) Preparation of antimicrobial hybrid nanomaterials using regenerated cellulose and metallic nanoparticles. Int J Biol Macromol 107:17–27Google Scholar
  47. Shao W, Liu H, Liu X, Sun H, Wang S, Zhang R (2015) pH-responsive release behavior and anti-bacterial activity of bacterial cellulose–silver nanocomposites. Int J Biol Macromol 76:209–217Google Scholar
  48. Sharma G, Kumar A, Sharma S, Naushad Mu, Dwivedi RP, ALOthman ZA, Mola GT (2019) Novel development of nanoparticles to bimetallic nanoparticles and their composites: a review. J King Saud Univ Sci 31:257–269Google Scholar
  49. Suresh S (2018) Biosynthesis and assemblage of extracellular cellulose by bacteria. In: Hussain CM (ed) Handbook of environmental materials management. Springer, Cham, pp 1–43Google Scholar
  50. Tang L, Tang J, Zeng G, Yang G, Xie X, Zhou Y, Pang Y, Fang Y, Wang J, Xiong W (2015) Rapid reductive degradation of aqueous p-nitrophenol using nanoscale zero-valent iron particles immobilized on mesoporous silica with enhanced antioxidation effect. Appl Surf Sci 333:220–228Google Scholar
  51. Tanvir F, Yaqub A, Tanvir S, Anderson WA (2017) Poly-l-arginine coated silver nanoprisms and their anti-bacterial properties. Nanomaterials 7(10):296Google Scholar
  52. Thangadurai P, Suresh S (2013) Reductive transformation of endosulfan in aqueous phase using magnesium–palladium bimetallic systems: a comparative study. J Hazard Mater 246–247:245–256Google Scholar
  53. Tsuji M, Gomi S, Maeda Y, Matsunaga M, Hikino S, Uto K, Tsuji T, Kawazumi H (2012) Rapid transformation from spherical nanoparticles, nanorods, cubes, or bipyramids to triangular prisms of silver with PVP, citrate, and H2O2. Langmuir 28(24):8845–8861Google Scholar
  54. Tyagi N, Suresh S (2013) Isolation and characterization of cellulose producing bacterial strain from orange pulp. Adv Mater Res 626:475–479Google Scholar
  55. Tyagi N, Suresh S (2016) Production of cellulose from sugarcane molasses using Gluconacetobacter intermedius SNT-1: optimization & characterization. J Clean Prod 112:71–80Google Scholar
  56. Ulissi ZW, Sen F, Gong X, Sen S, Iverson N, Boghossian A, Godoy LC, Wogan GN, Mukhopadhyay D, Strano MS (2014) Spatiotemporal intracellular nitric oxide signaling captured using internalized, near-infrared fluorescent carbon nanotube nanosensors. Nano Lett 14:4887–4894Google Scholar
  57. Urbina L, Guaresti O, Requies J, Gabilondo N, Eceiza A, Corcuera MA, Retegi A (2018) Design of reusable novel membranes based on bacterial cellulose and chitosan for the filtration of copper in wastewaters. Carbohydr Polym 193:362–372Google Scholar
  58. Volova TG, Shumilova AA, Shidlovskiy IP, Nikolaeva ED, Sukovatiy AG, Alexander D, Vasiliev AD, Ekaterina I, Shishatskaya EI (2018) Antibacterial properties of films of cellulose composites with silver nanoparticles and antibiotics. Polym Test 65:54–68Google Scholar
  59. Wu J, Zheng Y, Song W, Luan J, Wen X, Wu Z, Chen X, Wang Q, Guo S (2014) In situ synthesis of silver-nanoparticles/bacterial cellulose composites for slow-released antimicrobial wound dressing. Carbohydr Polym 102(1):762–771Google Scholar
  60. Xu J, Dozier A, Bhattacharyya D (2005) Synthesis of nanoscale bimetallic particles in polyelectrolyte membrane matrix for reductive transformation of halogenated organic compounds. J Nanopart Res 7:449–467Google Scholar
  61. Yang G, Xie J, Hong F, Cao Z, Yang X (2012) Antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticle impregnated bacterial cellulose membrane: effect of fermentation carbon sources of bacterial cellulose. Carbohydr Polym 87(1):839–845Google Scholar
  62. Zhang Q, Li N, Goebl J, Lu Z, Yin Y (2011) A systematic study of the synthesis of silver nanoplates: Is citrate a “magic” reagent? J Am Chem Soc 133(46):18931–18939Google Scholar
  63. Zhang XF, Liu ZG, Shen W, Gurunathan S (2016) Silver nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, properties, applications, and therapeutic approaches. Int J Mol Sci 17(9):1534Google Scholar
  64. Zhao CM, Wang WX (2010) Biokinetic uptake and efflux of silver nanoparticles in Daphnia magna. Environ Sci Technol 44(19):7699–7704Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science and EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology Bombay (IITB)Powai, MumbaiIndia

Personalised recommendations