Recovery of zinc granules from synthetic electroplating wastewater using fluidized-bed homogeneous crystallization process

  • M. D. G. de Luna
  • L. H. S. Paulino
  • C. M. Futalan
  • M. C. LuEmail author
Original Paper


In the present work, the recovery of zinc granules from synthetic electroplating wastewater was evaluated using fluidized-bed homogeneous crystallization. The effect of carbonate-to-zinc ([CO32−]/[Zn2+]) molar ratio (1.0–2.0), precipitant pH (10.30–11.20), initial zinc concentration (100–500 mg/L), and anions (Cl, F, and NO3) on the removal and granulation efficiencies of zinc was investigated. Results show that the highest granulation efficiency of 96.70% was attained at an influent zinc concentration of 300 mg/L, precipitant pH of 10.60 and [CO32−]/[Zn2+] of 1.2. Meanwhile, the highest removal efficiency of 99.90% was obtained at a precipitant pH of 10.60, [CO32−]/[Zn2+] of 1.2, and influent zinc concentration of 100 mg/L. Moreover, the residual zinc concentration of 0.15 mg/L was attained in the treated effluent, which is within the maximum contaminant level of 5.0 mg/L set by the US Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization. The presence of anions had little but insignificant effect on the removal where the treated effluent has a residual zinc concentration of 0.44 mg/L. Based on the X-ray diffraction analysis, zinc granules were recovered in the form of smithsonite and hydrozincite with rhombohedral-hexagonal and monoclinic structures, respectively. A broad size distribution was displayed by zinc granules where majority of the pellet diameters fall within the range of 0.149–2.000 mm. Overall, fluidized-bed homogeneous crystallization produced higher-purity pellets and proved to be an effective alternative to seeded crystallization technology.


Granulation efficiency Hydrozincite Smithsonite Solubility diagram 



This work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan, under Grant MOST 102-2221-E-041-001-MY3 and National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea through Ministry of Education under Grant 2016R1A6A1A03012812.

Supplementary material

13762_2019_2439_MOESM1_ESM.docx (15 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 15 kb)


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Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of the Philippines DilimanQuezon CityPhilippines
  2. 2.Environmental Engineering Program, National Graduate School of EngineeringUniversity of the Philippines DilimanQuezon CityPhilippines
  3. 3.National Research, Center for Disaster-Free and Safe Ocean CityDong-A UniversityBusanRepublic of Korea
  4. 4.Department of Environmental Resources ManagementChia-Nan University of Pharmacy and ScienceTainanTaiwan

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