Evaluation of the Acid Blue 161 dye degradation through electrochemical oxidation combined with microbiological systems

  • E. J. R. de AlmeidaEmail author
  • A. R. de Andrade
  • C. R. Corso
Original Paper


Synthetic textile dyes have considerable molecular complexity, which makes these compounds highly stable and resistant to different types of treatments. Azo dyes represent the most commonly used group of dyes in textile industry. Azo dye contaminants in wastewater are recalcitrant, and microbiological treatments and oxidative processes have been widely studied to remedy this problem. These treatments can transform recalcitrant substances into substances with low toxicity. Therefore, microbiological and electrochemical/microbiological discoloration treatments were performed with the azo textile dye Acid Blue 161 in aqueous solution. The microbiological discoloration treatments were carried out using the filamentous fungus Aspergillus terreus and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Discoloration treatments were performed with and without electrochemical pretreatment. The acute toxicity of the solutions was analyzed before and after the treatments using a vegetable test system (Lactuca sativa seeds). Adsorption treatment with white clay was performed to remove intermediate metabolites with high toxicological potential. At the end, all treatments tested were effective at discoloring the Acid Blue 161 dye solution. Moreover, the systems composed of the fungus A. terreus were more efficient and exhibited lower acute toxicity to L. sativa seeds at the end of 288 h of exposure to fungal biomass before and after adsorption treatment with white clay.


Azo dyes Water treatment Combination treatments Microbiological treatments Electrochemical treatments Lactuca sativa 



Our research group received funding from the following Brazilian fostering agencies and institutions: Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP [State of São Paulo Research Assistance Foundation]; Process Number: 2013/25535-4 and FAPESP: 2014/50945-4); this study was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior—Brasil (CAPES)—Finance Code 001; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico [CNPq [National Council of Scientific and Technological Development]) Process Number: INCT 465571/2014-0, Fundação para o Desenvolvimento da UNESP (FUNDUNESP [Foundation for the Development of São Paulo State University]) and Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (UNESP [São Paulo State University]).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Bioquímica e Microbiologia, Instituto de BiociênciasUniversidade Estadual de São Paulo (Unesp)Rio ClaroBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão PretoUniversidade de São PauloRibeirão PrêtoBrazil
  3. 3.National Institute for Alternative Technologies of Detection, Toxicological Evaluation and Removal of Micropollutants and Radioactives (INCT-DATREM)Institute of Chemistry, UnespAraraquaraBrazil

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