Advertisement

Measurement and evaluation of occupational exposure to electromagnetic field in the vicinity of FM/TV broadcast radiation

  • S. A. Mirbagheri
  • M. MohammadiEmail author
  • S. Z. Jalilzadeh Shirvani
Original Paper
  • 15 Downloads

Abstract

This paper involves the measurement and evaluation of electromagnetic field exposure levels at Kamarkouh FM/TV transmitter station at Qom province with multiple-frequency sources. Electromagnetic radiation levels were measured at 34 points for 6 min by Strength Meter Probe which is a broadband meter. The measured electromagnetic radiation levels were then compared to the International Commission of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection standard. In addition, the theoretical electric field strength values at these same 34 points as above were estimated based on a free-space modeling calculation. The measurement results show that the maximum electromagnetic radiation level was 13.45 V/m, and this is far below the International Commission of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection limits. The analysis of the comparison between calculated and measured electromagnetic radiation levels showed that there were other sources that contributed to increases in the electric field intensity. The source contributions to the total electric field strength were measured in a practical way. It means that by switching of the transmitters, the electric field strength measured in each state. The results showed that FM frequency band sources provided the highest contributions to the overall electromagnetic radiation level.

Keywords

Broadcast Non-ionizing radiation Protection Transmitter 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB). We are thankful to the employees who provided expertise that greatly assisted the research.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Aggarwal A, Gupta A (2011) Effect of electromagnetic radiations on humans: a study. Paper presented at the Proceeding of the 2011 IEEE students’ technology symposiumGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahlbom A, Feychting M, Hamnerius Y, Hillert L (2012) Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields and risk of disease and ill health. Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research (FAS)Google Scholar
  3. Azah CK, Amoako JK, Fletcher JJ (2013) Levels of electric field strength within the immediate vicinity of FM radio stations in Accra. Ghana Radiat Prot Dosim 156:395–400.  https://doi.org/10.1093/rpd/nct089 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Breckenkamp J, Blettner M, Schuz J, Bornkessel C, Schmiedel S, Schlehofer B, Berg-Beckhoff G (2012) Residential characteristics and radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposures from bedroom measurements in Germany. Radiat Environ Biophys 51:85–92.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00411-011-0389-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cansiz M, Abbasov T, Kurt MB, Celik AR (2016) Mobile measurement of radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure level and statistical analysis. Measurement 86:159–164.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2016.02.056 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen L-a, Wei S, Luo C, Hong C, Lin J (2009) Measurement of electromagnetic environment of Xiamen Island. In: 2009 5th Asia–Pacific conference on environmental electromagnetics, 16–20 Sept 2009, pp 424–428.  https://doi.org/10.1109/ceem.2009.5304658
  7. Clark ML et al (2007) Biomonitoring of estrogen and melatonin metabolites among women residing near radio and television broadcasting transmitters. J Occup Environ Med 49:1149–1156.  https://doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0b013e3181566b87 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dolk H, Shaddick G, Walls P, Grundy C, Thakrar B, Kleinschmidt I (1997) Cancer Incidence near radio and television transmitters in Great Britain. Am J Epidemiol 145:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Engiz B, Kursat B, Kurnaz C (2015) Measurement and evaluation of electromagnetic pollution in Ondokuz Mayıs University Kurupelit Campus in Samsun Turkey.  https://doi.org/10.15224/978-1-63248-077-4-23
  10. Federal Communications Commission Office of Engineering & Technology (1997) Evaluating compliance with FCC guidelines for human exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fieldsGoogle Scholar
  11. Habash R (2007) Bioeffects and therapeutic applications of electromagnetic energy. CRC Press, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Henderson SI, Bangay MJ (2006) Survey of RF exposure levels from mobile telephone base stations in Australia. Bioelectromagnetics 27:73–76.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bem.20174 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hocking B, Gordon IR, Grain HL, Hatfield GE (1996) Cancer incidence and mortality and proximity to TV towers. Med J Aust 165:601–605Google Scholar
  14. Huttunen P, Hanninen O, Myllyla R (2009) FM-radio and TV tower signals can cause spontaneous hand movements near moving RF reflector. Pathophysiology 16:201–204.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pathophys.2009.01.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Joseph W, Vermeeren G, Verloock L, Heredia MM, Martens L (2008) Characterization of personal RF electromagnetic field exposure and actual absorption for the general public. Health Phys 95:317–330.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.hp.0000318880.16023.61 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kim BC, Choi H (2013) Evaluation of electromagnetic fields levels in vicinity of broadcasting transmitters. In: 2013 Asia–Pacific microwave conference proceedings (APMC), 5–8 Nov 2013, pp 812–814.  https://doi.org/10.1109/apmc.2013.6694941
  17. Kraus JD, Marhefka RJ (2002) Antennas for all applications. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Kurnaz Ç (2018) An empirical modeling of electromagnetic pollution on a university campus. Appl Comput Electromagn Soc J 33:111–114Google Scholar
  19. Kurnaz Ç, Engiz BK, Bozkurt MC (2016) Monitoring of RF/Microwave field strength at schools in a pilot district in Samsun/Turkey. In: 2016 16th Mediterranean microwave symposium (MMS), 14–16 Nov 2016, pp 1–4.  https://doi.org/10.1109/mms.2016.7803786
  20. Merzenich H, Schmiedel S, Bennack S, Bruggemeyer H, Philipp J, Blettner M, Schuz J (2008) Childhood leukemia in relation to radio frequency electromagnetic fields in the vicinity of TV and radio broadcast transmitters. Am J Epidemiol 168:1169–1178.  https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwn230 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Munoz CM, Douthat A (2012) Application of measurement protocol in buildings with TV stations and FM broadcasting.  https://doi.org/10.1109/emceurope.2012.6396897
  22. Pakhomov AG, Murphy MR (2000) A comprehensive review of the research on biological effects of pulsed radiofrequency radiation in russia and the former Soviet Union. Adv Electromagn Fields Living Syst 3:265–290.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-4203-2_7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. PROTECTION ICONIRI (1998) For limiting exposure to time‐varying electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (up to 300 GHz), vol 74. Health PhysicsGoogle Scholar
  24. Rappaport TS (2002) Wireless communications: principles and practice, 2nd edn. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
  25. Schmiedel S, Bruggemeyer H, Philipp J, Wendler J, Merzenich H, Schuz J (2009) An evaluation of exposure metrics in an epidemiologic study on radio and television broadcast transmitters and the risk of childhood leukemia. Bioelectromagnetics 30:81–91.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bem.20460 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Schubert M, Bornkessel C, Wuschek M, Schmidt P (2007) Electromagnetic exposure of the general public to DVB-T and DAB transmitters compared to analogue TV and FM radio. In: 2007 2nd International ITG Conference on Antennas, IEEE, Munich, Germany, pp 230–233.  https://doi.org/10.1109/INICA.2007.4353969 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Seyfi L (2015) Assessment of electromagnetic radiation with respect to base station types, vol 5.  https://doi.org/10.7763/ijiee.2015.v5.525
  28. Shalamanova T II, Ivanova M, Isarael M (2007) EMF risk for operators mounting, adjusting and maintaining base stations. Environmentalist 27:545.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10669-007-9062-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Tell R, Kavet R (2014) A survey of the urban radiofrequency (RF) environment, vol 162.  https://doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncu021
  30. Viel JF, Clerc S, Barrera C, Rymzhanova R, Moissonnier M, Hours M, Cardis E (2009) Residential exposure to radiofrequency fields from mobile phone base stations, and broadcast transmitters: a population-based survey with personal meter. Occup Environ Med 66:550–556.  https://doi.org/10.1136/oem.2008.044180 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wolfgang Hoeg TL (2009) Digital audio broadcasting: principles and applications of DAB, DAB+ and DMB. Wiley, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. A. Mirbagheri
    • 1
  • M. Mohammadi
    • 1
    Email author
  • S. Z. Jalilzadeh Shirvani
    • 2
  1. 1.Environmental Engineering FacultyKhajeh Nasir Toosi UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB)TehranIran

Personalised recommendations