A multi-objective optimization model for municipal waste management system in Tehran city, Iran

  • M. Ahani
  • R. ArjmandiEmail author
  • H. Hoveidi
  • J. Ghodousi
  • M. R. Miri Lavasani
Original Paper


This paper describes an application of a multi-objective optimization algorithm (i.e., the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II [NSGA-II]) and a fuzzy expert system (FES) to allocate municipal waste capacities to recycling, aerobic composting, incinerator, and landfill facilities with these objectives: (1) minimization of the economic cost; and (2) minimization of the environmental cost of the municipal solid waste management system. The non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II is used to find multi-objective solutions, and a FES is employed for the environmental cost evaluation. Tehran, the capital of Iran, is selected as the case study. In the proposed model, the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the municipal solid waste management issue are taken into account so that the economic and environmental objectives that typically arise in cities in this regard can be considered. To achieve economic and environmental cost objectives, five scenarios with different economic and environmental costs and four solid waste management methods (recycling, aerobic composting, incinerator, and landfill) are employed. The results show that while hybrid methods for municipal waste management can be used, recycling and aerobic composting are the principal methods—that is, the scenarios that utilized higher percentages of these methods resulted in the lowest economic and environmental costs. Additionally, the results of model validation using predicted and real data from the different scenarios demonstrate the high accuracy of the proposed model.


Municipal solid waste Multi-objective optimization NSGA-II Fuzzy expert system 



We hereby wish to express our gratitude to the officials and experts of the Waste Management Organization of Tehran Municipality and the Recycling Office of the 22 regions of Tehran for their help in conducting this study.


  1. Abduli M, Nasrabadi T (2007) Municipal solid waste management in Kurdistan Province, Iran. J Environ Health 69:51–55Google Scholar
  2. Asadpour G, Nasrabadi T (2011) Municipal and medical solid waste management in different districts of Tehran, Iran. Fresenius Environ Bull 20:3241–3245Google Scholar
  3. Brown S, Passino K (1997) Intelligent control for an acrobot. J Intell Rob Syst 18:209–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chang Y, Chang N (1998) Optimization analysis for the development of short-team solid waste management strategies using presorting process prior to incinerators. Resour Conserv Recycl 24:7–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chang N, Shoemaker C, Schuler R (1996) Solid waste management system analysis with air pollution and leachate impact limitations. Waste Manag Res 14:463–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cheng G, Huang G, Dong C, Xu Y, Chen X, Chen J (2017a) Distributed mixed-integer fuzzy hierarchical programming for municipal solid waste management. Part I: system identification and methodology development. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24:7236–7252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cheng G, Huang G, Dong C, Xu Y, Chen J, Chen X, Li K (2017b) Distributed mixed-integer fuzzy hierarchical programming for municipal solid waste management. Part II: scheme analysis and mechanism revelation. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24:8711–8721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Deb K (2008) A robust evolutionary framework for multi-objective optimization. In: Proceedings of 10th international symposium on genetic and evolutionary computation, Atlanta, pp 633–640Google Scholar
  9. Deb K, Pratab A, Agarwal S, Pratap A (2000) A fast elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm for multi-objective optimization: NSGA-II. In: Proceedings of 6th international symposium on parallel problem solving from nature PPSN VI, Paris, pp 849–858Google Scholar
  10. Deb K, Pratab A, Agarwal S (2002) A fast and Elisit multiobjective genetic algorithm: NSGA-II. IEEE Trans Evol Comput 6:182–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. DEFRA (Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs) (2004) Review of environmental and health effects of waste management: municipal solid waste and similar wastes, accomplished by Enviros Consulting Ltd. and University of Birmingham with risk and policy analysts Ltd, Open University and Maggie Thurgood Google Scholar
  12. Deng N, Zhang Q, Chen G, Qi C, Cui W, Zhang Y, Ma H (2015) Optimal scenario balance of reduction in costs and greenhouse gas emissions for municipal solid waste management. J Central South Univ 22:887–894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Djamel K, Lamari S, Makri F (2018) Use of geographic information system for management of municipal solid waste of M’sila City—Algeria. World J Environ Biosci 7:36–39Google Scholar
  14. European Commission (EC) , DG Environment (2000a) A study on economic valuation of environment externalities from landfill disposal and incineration of waste. Final main report.
  15. Estay-Ossandon C, Mena-Nieto A, Harsch N (2018) Using a fuzzy TOPSIS-based scenario analysis to improve municipal solid waste planning and forecasting: a case study of Canary archipelago (1999–2030). J Clean Prod 176:1198–1212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fiorucci P, Minciardi R, Robba M, Sacile R (2003) Solid waste management in urban areas: development and application of a decision support system. Resour Conserv Recycl 37:301–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Galante G, Aiello G, Enea M, Panascia E (2010) A multi-objective approach to solid waste management. Waste Manag 30:1720–1728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Garibay-Rodriguez J, Laguna-Martinez M, Rico-Ramirez V, Botello-Alvarez J (2018) Optimal municipal solid waste energy recovery and management: a mathematical programming approach. Comput Chem Eng 119:394–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ghiasi H, Pasini D, Lessard L (2011) A non-dominated sorting hybrid algorithm for multi-objective optimization of engineering problems. Eng Optim 43:39–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Giusti L (2009) A review of waste management practices and their impact on human health. Waste Manag 29:2227–2239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Habibi F, Asadi E, Sadjadi S, Barzinpour F (2017) A multi-objective robust optimization model for site-selection and capacity allocation of municipal solid waste facilities: a case study in Tehran. J Cleaner Prod 166:816–834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ho W, Hashim H, Lim J, Lee C, Sam K, Tan S (2017) Waste management pinch analysis (WAMPA): application of Pinch Analysis for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction in municipal solid waste management. Appl Energy 185:1481–1489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Huang J, Zhao R, Huang T, Wang X, Tseng M (2018) Sustainable municipal solid waste disposal in the belt and road initiative: a preliminary proposal for Chengdu City. Sustainability 10:1147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jamshidi-Zanjani A, Rezaei M (2017) Landfill site selection using combination of fuzzy logic and multi-attribute decision-making approach. Environ Earth Sci 76:448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jie W, Chi M, Dezheng Z (2018) Municipal solid waste management and green house gas emission control through an inexact optimization model under interval and random uncertainties. Eng Optim 50:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lyeme H, Mushi A, Nkansah-Gyekye Y (2017) Implementation of a goal programming model for solid waste management: a case study of Dar es Salaam Tanzania. Int J Simul Multidiscip Des Optim 8:8–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ma X, Ma C, Wan Z, Wang K (2017) A fuzzy chance-constrained programming model with type 1 and type 2 fuzzy sets for solid waste management under uncertainty. Eng Optim 49:1040–1056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mavrotas G, Gakis N, Skoulaxinou S, Katsouros V, Georgopoulou E (2015) Municipal solid waste management and energy production: consideration of external cost through multi-objective optimization and its effect on waste-to-energy solutions. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 51:1205–1222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Milutinovic B, Stefanovic G, Milutinovic S, Cojbasic Z (2016) Application of fuzzy logic for evaluation of the level of social acceptance of waste treatment. Clean Technol Environ Policy 18:1863–1875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Minoglou M, Komilis D (2013) Optimizing the treatment and disposal of municipal solidwastes using mathematical programming—a case study in a Greek region. Resour Conserv Recycl 80:46–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Münster M, Ravn H, Hedegaard K, Juul N, Söderman M (2015) Economic and environmental optimization of waste treatment. Waste Manag 38:486–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Noche B, Rhoma F, Chinakupt T, Jawale M (2010) Optimization model for solid waste management system network design case study. In: Proceedings of 2th international symposium on computer and automation engineering (ICCAE), vol 5, pp 230–236Google Scholar
  33. OWM (2018) Statistics report on 2017. Organization for Waste Management. Tehran Municipality, Iran.
  34. Pramanik S, Maity K, Jana D, Mukherjee A (2017) Multi-objective municipal solid waste management recycling problem in fuzzy-rough environment. Int J Process Manag Bench Mark 8:443–469Google Scholar
  35. Shirazi M, Samieifard R, Abduli M, Omidvar B (2016) Mathematical modeling in municipal solid waste management: case study of Tehran. J Environ Health Sci Eng 14:8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sornil W (2014) Solid waste management planning using multi-objective genetic algorithm. J Solid Waste Technol Manag 40:33–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Srivastava A, Nema A (2012) Fuzzy parametric programming model for multi-objective integrated solid waste management under uncertainty. Expert Syst Appl 39:4657–4678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Topaloglu M, Yarkin F, Kaya T (2018) Solid waste collection system selection for smart cities based on a type-2 fuzzy multi-criteria decision technique. Soft Comput 22:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Vesely S, Klockner C, Dohnal M (2016) Predicting recycling behaviour: comparison of a linear regression model and a fuzzy logic model. Waste Manag 49:530–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Yedla S, Sindhu N (2016) Assessment of alternative disposal methods to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste in India. Waste Manag Res 34:553–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Yu H, Solvang W, Li S (2015) Optimization of long-term performance of municipal solid waste management system: abi-objective mathematical model. Int J Eenergy Environ 6:153–164Google Scholar
  42. Zadeh L (1965) Fuzzy sets. Inf Control 8:338–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Ahani
    • 1
  • R. Arjmandi
    • 1
    Email author
  • H. Hoveidi
    • 2
  • J. Ghodousi
    • 1
  • M. R. Miri Lavasani
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Science and Research BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Planning, Management and Education, School of Environment, College of EngineeringUniversity of TehranTehranIran

Personalised recommendations