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Improving incomplete combustion and reducing engine-out emissions in reactivity controlled compression ignition engine fueled by ethanol

  • H. R. FajriEmail author
  • M. Mohebi
  • H. Adibi-Asl
  • A. Abdul Aziz
  • S. A. Jazayeri
Original Paper
  • 43 Downloads

Abstract

In this paper, various fuels with different reactivities were implemented as a strategy to optimize the heat release rate which could be a dominant combustion controller in an internal combustion engine. Using a blend of ethanol and gasoline fuels is one of the best approaches to decrease heat release rate, as well as prolonging combustion duration and retarding combustion phasing. Application of ethanol fuel, however, may lead to misfire and unstable combustion in reactivity controlled compression ignition engines. A multi-dimensional model coupled with a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism was applied to investigate the effects of single and double injections within misfire zones in a research engine using iso-octane, n-heptane, and ethanol fuels. A parametric approach is employed to analyze the engine model behavior through varying energy fraction of fuels through both single and double injections strategies. Three performance maps of engine at varying total fuel energy with different ratios of the port to direct fuel injections have been simulated. The first map is related to using net iso-octane and n-heptane fuels; the other two maps are related to the use of 20% and 40% ethanol fuels instead of net iso-octane fuel, respectively. The results highlight that double injection strategy with the injection timing between 27° and 47° before top dead center is capable of improving misfire points also effective on reducing both nitrogen oxide formation and ringing intensity, as well as improving engine gross indicated efficiency.

Keywords

Misfire Injection timing Nitrogen oxide emission Unburned fuel 

Abbreviations

ATDC

After top dead center

BSFC

Brake specific fuel consumption

BTDC

Before top dead center

CA

Crank angle

CA10

The location of 10% MFB

CA50

The location of 50% MFB

CA90

The location of 90% MFB

CFD

Computational fluid dynamic

CO

Carbon monoxide

CO2

Carbon dioxide

EGR

Exhaust gas recirculation

EPA

Environmental protection agency

ERC

Engine research center

E20

20% Ethanol fuel by energy

E40

40% Ethanol fuel by energy

GIE

Gross indicated efficiency

HCCI

Homogeneous charge compression ignition

LHV

Lower heating value

LTC

Low-temperature combustion

MEP

Mean effective pressure

MFB

Mass fraction burned

NOx

Nitrogen oxides

PCCI

Premixed charge compression ignition

PMs

Particulate matters

PRR

Pressure rise rate

RCCI

Reactivity controlled compression ignition

RI

Ringing intensity

SOI

Start of injection

TDC

Top dead center

UHC

Unburned hydrocarbon

Notations

\(B_{1}\)

Adjustable parameter

\(C_{\text{b}}\)

Adjustable parameter

\(c_{\varepsilon 1} , c_{\varepsilon 2} ,c_{\varepsilon 3}\)

RANS model constants

D

Mass diffusivity of liquid vapor in air

\(D_{0}\)

Sac diameter

\(d_{0}\)

Parent parcel diameter

\(d_{2}\)

Diameter of the smaller droplet

k

Turbulent kinetic energy

\(\frac{L}{D}\)

Ratio of the nozzle length to the nozzle diameter

\(M_{\text{m}}\)

Mass of species m in the cell

\(M_{\text{tot}}\)

Total mass in the cell

\(P_{\rm{max} }\)

Peak pressure

Pr

Prandtl number

R

Ideal gas constant

r

Drop radius

\(Sh_{\text{d}}\)

Sherwood number

S

Source term (in transport equations)

\(T_{\rm{max} }\)

Peak temperature

\(Y_{1}^{*}\)

Vapor mass fraction at the drop’s surface

\(Y_{1}\)

Vapor mass fraction

\(\varOmega_{\text{KH}}\)

Calculated frequency

\(\varLambda_{\text{KH}}\)

Calculated wavelength

\(\alpha\)

Collision angle

\(\gamma\)

Specific heat ratio

\(\varepsilon\)

Dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy

\(\mu_{\text{t}}\)

Turbulent viscosity

\(\rho_{\text{a}}\)

Air density

\(\rho_{\text{a}}\)

Liquid density

\(\rho_{\text{m}}\)

Density of species m in the cell

\(\rho_{\text{tot}}\)

Total density in the cell

\(\sigma\)

Surface tension

\(\sigma_{ij}\)

Stress tensor

\(\phi\)

Transported quantity

\(\varGamma_{\phi }\)

Diffusion coefficient

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study has used the experimental data of a single-cylinder Cat® 3401E SCOTE engine for simulation validation, accordingly, the authors acknowledge ERC of the University of Wisconsin–Madison for this information.

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Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Iran Khodro Powertrain CompanyTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of Technology, MalaysiaJohor BahruMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada
  4. 4.Department of Mechanical EngineeringK. N. Toosi University of TechnologyTehranIran

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