The efficacy of the ozonation process in the presence of activated carbon impregnated with magnesium oxide in the removal of benzene from the air stream

  • R. RashidiEmail author
  • G. Moussavi
  • A. Khavanin
  • A. Ghaderpoori
Original Paper


The main purpose of this study was to investigate the catalytic ozonation process with GAC–MgO in removal of benzene in air streams. The flow diagram of the experimental bench-scale setup included a glass column (internal diameter = 3 cm) packed for 10 cm with granular activated carbon coated with magnesium oxide. Different initial concentrations of benzene (80, 200 and 400 ppm) were used to evaluate the removal efficiency. The synthesized granular activated carbon coated by magnesium oxide was a microporous adsorbent with the BET specific surface area of 1028 m2/g. Hydroxyl, methylene, methyl, carboxylic groups and aromatic C=C bonds were some of the several functional groups identified on the its surface. In the catalytic ozonation process, the breakthrough time for the inlet concentration of 200 ppm increased from 36 h for granular activated carbon to 53 h for granular activated carbon ozonation. In other words, the concomitant use of activated carbon and ozone enhanced (from 36 h to 53 h) the removal efficiency of the system by 17 h in comparison with activated carbon alone. In the ozonation process for the bed, the benzene breakthrough time of the bed, for the inlet concentration of 200 ppm, increased from 44 h in the granular activated carbon coated by magnesium oxide system to 78 h in the granular activated carbon coated by magnesium oxide and ozonation. Eventually, the results showed the ozonation process in combination with the granular activated carbon coated by magnesium oxide catalyst.


Benzene Ozone Catalytic bed Activated carbon Magnesium oxide 



We appreciate the Lorestan University of Medical Sciences and Tarbiat Modares University for providing financial and instrumental support for the laboratory work.


  1. Adio SO, Mohammad ARI, Baiga N, Abdulrahman AAA, Saleh TA (2019) Poly (amidoxime) modified magnetic activated carbon for chromium and thallium adsorption: statistical analysis and regeneration. Process Saf Environ Prot 121:254–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bandosz TJ (2008) Removal of inorganic gases and VOCs on activated carbons. Adsorption by carbons. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 533–564Google Scholar
  3. Biglari H, RodríguezíCouto S, Omidi Khaniabadi Y, Nourmoradi H, Khoshgoftar M, Amrane A, Vosoughi M, Esmaeili S, Heydari R, Mohammadi MJ, Rashidi R (2018) Cationic surfactant-modified clay as an adsorbent for the removal of synthetic dyes from aqueous solutions. Int J Chem Reactor Eng 16(5):1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cervantes-Uc JM, Cauich-Rodríguez JV, Vázquez-Torres H, Garfias-Mesías LF, Paul DR (2007) Thermal degradation of commercially available organoclays studied by TGA–FTIR. Thermochim Acta 457:92–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chao CYH, Kwong C, Hui K (2007) Potential use of a combined ozone and zeolite system for gaseous toluene elimination. J Hazard Mater 143:118–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cooper CD, Alley FC (2002) Air pollution control: a design approach. Waveland Press, Long GroveGoogle Scholar
  7. DiNardi SR (2003) The occupational environment: its evaluation, control, and management. AIHA Press (American Industrial Hygiene Association), FairfaxGoogle Scholar
  8. Eaton AD, Clesceri LS, Rice EW (2005) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (PAHA). American Water Works Association, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  9. Einaga H, Futamura S (2004) Catalytic oxidation of benzene with ozone over alumina-supported manganese oxides. J Catal 227:304–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gaur V, Sharma A, Verma N (2005) Catalytic oxidation of toluene and m-xylene by activated carbon fiber impregnated with transition metals. Carbon 43:3041–3053CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Godish T (2016) Indoor environmental quality. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  12. Gupa VK, Agarwal S, Saleh TA (2011) Chromium removal by combining the magnetic properties of iron oxide with adsorption properties of carbon nanotubes. Water Res 45(6):2207–2212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Huang S, Zhang C, Hong H (2009) In situ adsorption-catalysis system for the removal of o-xylene over an activated carbon supported Pd catalyst. Journal of Environmental Sciences 21:985–990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kamarehie B, Jafari A, Ghaderpoori M, Karami MA, Mousavi K, Ghaderpoury A (2018a) Catalytic ozonation process using PAC/γ-Fe2O3 to Alizarin Red S degradation from aqueous solutions: a batch study. Chem Eng Commun. Google Scholar
  15. Kamarehie B, Tizabi SMS, Heydari R, Jafari A, Ghaderpoori M, Karami MA, Ghaderpoury A (2018b) Data on the bisphenol A adsorption from aqueous solutions on PAC and MgO~PAC crystals. Data Brief 21:746–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kamarehie B, Jafari A, Ghaderpoori M, Karami MA, Mousavi K, Ghaderpoury A (2018c) Data on the alizarin red S adsorption from aqueous solutions on PAC, treated PAC, and PAC/γ≈Fe2O3. Data Brief 20:903–908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Khan FI, Ghoshal AK (2000) Removal of volatile organic compounds from polluted air. J Loss Prev Process Ind 13:527–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kwong C, Chao CY, Hui K, Wan M (2008) Removal of VOCs from indoor environment by ozonation over different porous materials. Atmos Environ 42:2300–2311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lee Y-W, Park J-W, Choung J-H, Choi D-K (2002) Adsorption characteristics of SO2 on activated carbon prepared from coconut shell with potassium hydroxide activation. Environ Sci Technol 36:1086–1092CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Liu P, Long C, Li Q, Qian H, Li A, Zhang Q (2009) Adsorption of trichloroethylene and benzene vapors onto hypercrosslinked polymeric resin. J Hazard Mater 166:46–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Liu H, Wang X, Zhai G, Zhang J, Zhang C, Bao N, Cheng C (2012) Preparation of activated carbon from lotus stalks with the mixture of phosphoric acid and pentaerythritol impregnation and its application for Ni (II) sorption. Chem Eng J 209:155–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Maldhure AV, Ekhe J (2011) Preparation and characterizations of microwave assisted activated carbons from industrial waste lignin for Cu (II) sorption. Chem Eng J 168:1103–1111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Massoudinejad M, Rasoulzadeh H, Ghaderpoori M (2019) Magnetic chitosan nanocomposite: fabrication, properties, and optimization for adsorptive removal of crystal violet from aqueous solutions. Carbohyd Polym 206:844–853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mohsenibandpei A, Ghaderpoori M, Hassani G, Bahrami H, Bahmani Z, Alinejad AA (2016) Water solution polishing of nitrate using potassium permanganate modified zeolite: parametric experiments, kinetics and equilibrium analysis. Glob Nest J 18:546–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Moussavi G, Mahmoudi M (2009) Degradation and biodegradability improvement of the reactive red 198 azo dye using catalytic ozonation with MgO nanocrystals. Chem Eng J 152:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Moussavi G, Yazdanbakhsh A, Heidarizad M (2009) The removal of formaldehyde from concentrated synthetic wastewater using O3/MgO/H2O2 process integrated with the biological treatment. J Hazard Mater 171:907–913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Moussavi G, Khavanin A, Alizadeh R (2010a) The integration of ozonation catalyzed with MgO nanocrystals and the biodegradation for the removal of phenol from saline wastewater. Appl Catal B 97:160–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Moussavi G, Khavanin A, Mokarami H (2010b) Investigating the effect of gas flow rate, inlet ozone concentration and relative humidity on the efficacy of catalytic ozonation process in the removal of xylene from waste airstream. Iran Occup Health 7:65–70Google Scholar
  29. Moussavi G, Rashidi R, Khavanin A (2013) The efficacy of GAC/MgO composite for destructive adsorption of benzene from waste air stream. Chem Eng J 228:741–747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rashidi R, Yousefinejad S, Mokarami H (2018) Catalytic ozonation process using CuO/clinoptilolite zeolite for the removal of formaldehyde from the air stream. Int J Environ Sci Technol. Google Scholar
  31. Richards R, Mulukutla RS, Mishakov I, Chesnokov V, Volodin A, Zaikovski V, Sun N, Klabunde KJ (2001) Nanocrystalline ultra high surface area magnesium oxide as a selective base catalyst. Scr Mater 44:1663–1666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Saleh TA (2015a) Nanocomposite of carbon nanotubes/silica nanoparticles and their use for adsorption of Pb(II): from surface properties to sorption mechanism. Desalin Water Treat 57(23):10730–10744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Saleh TA (2015b) Isotherm, kinetic, and thermodynamic studies on Hg(II) adsorption from aqueous solution by silica- multiwall carbon nanotubes. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:16721–16731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Saleh TA, Naeemullah, Tuzen M, Sari A (2017a) Polyethylenimine modified activated carbon as novel magnetic adsorbent for the removal of uranium from aqueous solution. Chem Eng Res Des 117:218–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Saleh TA, Tuzen M, Sari A (2017b) Magnetic activated carbon loaded with tungsten oxide nanoparticles for aluminum removal from waters. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 5(3):2853–2860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Saleh TA, Tuzen M, Ahmet Sari (2018a) Polyamide magnetic palygorskite for the simultaneous removal of Hg(II) and methyl mercury; with factorial design analysis. J Environ Manage 211:323–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Saleh TA, Adio SO, Asif M, Dafalla H (2018b) Statistical analysis of phenols adsorption on diethylenetriamine-modified activated carbon. J Clean Prod 182:960–968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Shepherd A (2001) Activated carbon adsorption for treatment of VOC emissions. 13th annual EnviroExpo, Boston, Massachusetts, May 2001, p 4Google Scholar
  39. Tang YB, Liu Q, Chen FY (2012) Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from waste ramulus mori. Chem Eng J 203:19–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Thrower PA (2003) Chemistry & physics of carbon. CRC Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  41. Tuzen M, Sari A, Saleh TA (2018) Response surface optimization, kinetic and thermodynamic studies for effective removal of rhodamine B by magnetic AC/CeO2 nanocomposite. J Environ Manage 206:170–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wang JH, Ray MB (2000) Application of ultraviolet photooxidation to remove organic pollutants in the gas phase. Sep Purif Technol 19:11–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Water Environment Federation, American Public Health Association (2005) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association (APHA), Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  44. Yazdanbakhsh A, Hashempour Y, Ghaderpouri M (2018) Performance of granular activated carbon/nanoscale zero-valent iron for removal of humic substances from aqueous solution based on experimental design and response surface modeling. Glob Nest J 20:57–68Google Scholar
  45. Zeydouni G, Kianizadeh M, Khaniabadi YO, Nourmoradi H, Esmaeili S, Mohammadi MJ, Rashidi R (2018) Eriochrme black-T removal from aqueous environment by surfactant modified clay: equilibrium, kinetic, isotherm, and thermodynamic studies. Toxin Rev. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Occupational Health Engineering, Nutritional Health Research Center, School of Health and NutritionLorestan University of Medical SciencesKhorramabadIran
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Medical SciencesTarbiat Modares UniversityTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Occupational Health Engineering, Faculty of Medical SciencesTarbiat Modares UniversityTehranIran
  4. 4.Student Research Committee, Department of Environmental Health EngineeringShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

Personalised recommendations