Chemical composition of an insecticidal hydroalcoholic extract from tea leaves against green peach aphid

  • Z. KhoshraftarEmail author
  • A. Shamel
  • A. A. Safekordi
  • M. Zaefizadeh
Short Communication


The development of botanical insecticides for pest control in agriculture is an important challenge nowadays. The plant extract derived from tea leaves was evaluated for its insecticidal activity toward green peach aphid. Evaluation of the efficacy of different concentrations of tea extract formulation [250, 350, 450, 550, 1000 ppm plant extract + 5 vol% polysorbate 20 + 10% (v/v) oil] on green peach aphid with two methods, leaf-dipping and leaf-spraying methods, was performed. The chemical compounds of hydroalcoholic extract of tea were determined by GC–MS analysis and FTIR. The results of GC–MS showed that caffeine may be an insecticidal active component. Creaming and phase separation of the prepared emulsion was investigated as the quality control factors. After 10 days, no phase separation and no color change were observed. The results indicated that LC50 of tea extract formulation contact toxicity was 357.72 ppm for 48-h exposure. The increased concentration of plant extract formulation led to increased green peach aphid mortality percent. The results of laboratory bioassay have shown that tea leaf extract could be considered as a potential source for the development of a botanical insecticide for controlling aphid.


Bioassay Emulsion Natural insecticide Tea plant extract 



We would like to thank all members of Chemistry Research Laboratory of Azad University, Ardabil, Iran, and the University of Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, for supporting Ph.D. Thesis.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Authors declared that there is no conflict of interest.


  1. Abbas N, Khan H, Shad SA (2015) Cross-resistance, stability, and fitness cost of resistance to imidacloprid in Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae). Parasitol Res 114:247–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abbott WS (1925) A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. J Econ Entomol 18:265–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmad M, Baba WN, Gani A, Wani TA, Gani A, Masoodi FA (2015) Effect of extraction time on antioxidants and bioactive volatile components of green tea (Camellia sinensis), using GC/MS. Cogent Food Agric 1:1106387Google Scholar
  4. Aktar W, Sengupta D, Chowdhury A (2009) Impact of pesticides use in agriculture: their benefits and hazards. Interdiscip Toxicol 2:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alluhayb AH, Logue BA (2017) The analysis of aroma/flavor compounds in green tea using ice concentration linked with extractive stirrer. J Chromatogr A 1518:8–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Amoabeng BW, Stevenson PC, Pandey S, Mochiah MB, Gurr MG (2018) Insecticidal activity of a native Australian tobacco, Nicotiana megalosiphon Van Heurck & Muell. Arg. (Solanales: Solanaceae) against key insect pests of brassicas. Crop Prot 106:6–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Andorno AV, López SN (2014) Biological control of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) through banker plant system in protected crops. Biol Control 78:9–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Anjali CH, Sharma Y, Mukherjee A, Chandrasekaran N (2012) Neem oil (Azadirachta indica) nanoemulsion—a potent larvicidal agent against Culex quinquefasciatus. Pest Manag Sci 68:158–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Araque P, Casanova H, Ortiz C, Henao B, Peláez C (2007) Insecticidal activity of caffeine aqueous solutions and caffeine oleate emulsions against Drosophila melanogaster and Hypothenemus hampei. J Agric Food Chem 55:6918–6922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Arora DS, Ohlan D (1997) In vitro studies on antifungal activity of tea (Camellia sinensis) and coffee (Coffea arabica) against wood-rotting fungi. J Basic Microbiol 37:159–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bedmutha R, Booker CJ, Ferrante L, Briens C, Berruti F, Yeung KK, Scott I, Conn K (2011) Insecticidal and bactericidal characteristics of the bio-oil from the fast pyrolysis of coffee grounds. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 90:224–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Benelli G, Govindarajan M, AlSalhi MS, Devanesan S, Maggi F (2017) High toxicity of camphene and γ-elemene from Wedelia prostrata essential oil against larvae of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Environ Sci Pollut Res 25:10383–10391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Benelli G, Govindarajan M, Rajeswary M, Vaseeharan B, Alyahya SA, Alharbi NS, Kadaikunnan S, Khaled JM, Maggi F (2018) Insecticidal activity of camphene, zerumbone and α-humulene from Cheilocostus speciosus rhizome essential oil against the Old-World bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 148:781–786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Boursier CM, Bosco D, Coulibaly A, Negre M (2011) Are traditional neem extract preparations as efficient as a commercial formulation of azadirachtin A? Crop Prot 30:318–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bueno MM, Uclés S, Hernando MD, Dávoli E, Fernández-Alba AR (2011) Evaluation of selected ubiquitous contaminants in the aquatic environment and their transformation products. A pilot study of their removal from a sewage treatment plant. Water Res 45:2331–2341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Da Costa JT, Forim MR, Costa ES, De Souza JR, Mondego JM, Junior ALB (2014) Effects of different formulations of neem oil-based products on control Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman, 1833) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) on beans. J Stored Prod Res 56:49–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dolma SK, Sharma E, Gulati A, Reddy SE (2018) Insecticidal activities of tea saponin against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella and aphid, Aphis craccivora. Toxin Rev 37:52–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Erdogan P, Yildirim A, Sever B (2012) Investigations on the effects of five different plant extracts on the two-spotted mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Arachnida: Tetranychidae). Psyche J Entomol 2012:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Filomeno CA, Barbosa LCA, Teixeira RR, Pinheiro AL, de Sá Farias E, de Paula Silva EM, Picanço MC (2017) Corymbia spp. and Eucalyptus spp. essential oils have insecticidal activity against Plutella xylostella. Ind Crops Prod 109:374–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Finney DJ (1971) Probit analysis, 3rd edn. Cambridge University Press, London, p 333Google Scholar
  21. Forim MR, Costa ES, da Silva MFDGF, Fernandes JB, Mondego JM, Boiça Junior AL (2013) Development of a new method to prepare nano-/microparticles loaded with extracts of Azadirachta indica, their characterization and use in controlling Plutella xylostella. J Agric Food Chem 61:9131–9139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gomes GA, Monteiro CMO, de Santana Julião L, Maturano R, Senra TOS, Zeringóta V, Calmon F, da Silva Matos R, Daemon E, de Carvalho MG (2014) Acaricidal activity of essential oil from Lippia sidoides on unengorged larvae and nymphs of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) and Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae). Exp Parasitol 137:41–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hu J, Webster D, Cao J, Shao A (2018) The safety of green tea and green tea extracts consumption in adults–results of a systematic review. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 95:412–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hynes RK, Boyetchko SM (2006) Research initiatives in the art and science of biopesticide formulations. Soil Biol Biochem 38:845–849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Isman MB, Miresmailli S, Machial C (2011) Commercial opportunities for pesticides based on plant essential oils in agriculture, industry and consumer products. Phytochem Rev 10:197–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Khoshraftar Z, Shamel A (2017) Adsorption of Malachite green dye from aqueous solutions using roots of Azolla filiculoides. J Phys Theor Chem 13:237–252Google Scholar
  27. Kim SI, Yi JH, Tak JH, Ahn YJ (2004) Acaricidal activity of plant essential oils against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae). Vet Parasitol 120:297–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Köhler HR, Triebskorn R (2013) Wildlife ecotoxicology of pesticides: can we track effects to the population level and beyond? Science 341:759–765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ma CM, Cheng CL, Lee SC, Hong GB (2018) Antioxidant capacity, insecticidal ability and heat-oxidation stability of Tagetes lemmonii leaf extract. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 151:68–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Miresmailli S, Isman MB (2014) Botanical insecticides inspired by plant–herbivore chemical interactions. Trends Plant Sci 19:29–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Nathanson JA (1984) Caffeine and related methylxanthines: possible naturally occurring pesticides. Science 226:184–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Osanloo M, Amani A, Sereshti H, Abai MR, Esmaeili F, Sedaghat MM (2017) Preparation and optimization nanoemulsion of Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus) essential oil as effective herbal larvicide against Anopheles stephensi. Ind Crops Prod 109:214–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Park BS, Lee SE, Choi WS, Jeong CY, Song C, Cho KY (2002) Insecticidal and acaricidal activity of pipernonaline and piperoctadecalidine derived from dried fruits of Piper longum L. Crop Prot 21:249–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Passino GS, Bazzoni E, Moretti MDL (2004) Microencapsulated essential oils active against indianmeal moth. Bol sanid veg Plagas 30:125–132Google Scholar
  35. Pavela R, Benelli G (2016) Essential oils as ecofriendly biopesticides? Challenges and constraints. Trends Plant Sci 21:1000–1007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pimentel-Moral S, Rodríguez-Pérez C, Segura-Carretero A, Martínez-Férez A (2018) Development and stability evaluation of water-in-edible oils emulsions formulated with the incorporation of hydrophilic Hibiscus sabdariffa extract. Food Chem 260:200–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Puripattanavong J, Songkram C, Lomlim L, Amnuaikit T (2013) Development of concentrated emulsion containing Nicotiana tabacum extract for use as pesticide. JAPS 3:16–21Google Scholar
  38. Rodrigues ET, Alpendurada MF, Ramos F, Pardal MÂ (2018) Environmental and human health risk indicators for agricultural pesticides in estuaries. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 150:224–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Roger K, Cabane B, Olsson U (2009) Formation of 10–100 nm size-controlled emulsions through a sub-PIT cycle. Langmuir 26:3860–3867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sakulpanich A, Attrapadung S, Gritsanapan W (2017) Insecticidal activity of Stemona collinsiae root extract against Parasarcophaga ruficornis (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). Acta Trop 173:62–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Severtson D, Flower K, Nansen C (2016) Spatially-optimized sequential sampling plan for cabbage aphids Brevicoryne brassicae L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in canola fields. J Econ Entomol 109:1929–1935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sugumar S, Clarke SK, Nirmala MJ, Tyagi BK, Mukherjee A, Chandrasekaran N (2014) Nanoemulsion of eucalyptus oil and its larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus. Bull Entomol Res 104:393–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Turek C, Stintzing FC (2013) Stability of essential oils: a review. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 12:40–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ujváry I (1999) Nicotine and other insecticidal alkaloids. Nicotinoid insecticides and the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Springer, Tokyo, pp 29–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wan NF, Ji XY, Jiang JX, Zhang YM, Liang JH, Li B (2015) An ecological indicator to evaluate the effect of chemical insecticide pollution management on complex ecosystems. Ecol Indic 53:11–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Yang FL, Li XG, Zhu F, Lei CL (2009) Structural characterization of nanoparticles loaded with garlic essential oil and their insecticidal activity against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). J Agric Food Chem 57:10156–10162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Yang Z, Baldermann S, Watanabe N (2013) Recent studies of the volatile compounds in tea. Food Res Int 53:585–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Science and Research BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry, Ardabil BranchIslamic Azad UniversityArdabilIran
  3. 3.Department of Biology, Ardabil BranchIslamic Azad UniversityArdabilIran

Personalised recommendations