Excessive fluoride in groundwater of Central Ganga Alluvial Plain: a case study of Fatehpur, North India

  • V. DuttaEmail author
  • N. Fatima
  • N. Kumar
Original Paper


Groundwater quality deterioration due to natural and anthropogenic causes is a major concern throughout the world which affects supply of safe drinking water to several million people globally. High concentration of fluoride, often above 1.5 mg/L, constitutes a severe problem over a large part of India. This study is the first report of excess fluoride in the groundwater of the Central Ganga Alluvial region in Fatehpur district of Uttar Pradesh, India. Sampling in two villages shows that 95% of the groundwater samples belong to high fluoride concentration which is responsible for the endemic dental and skeletal fluorosis in the area concerned. It is observed that groundwater is being supplied to the local population without proper treatment. In the study area, several cases of dental fluorosis and bone deformities were observed in both children and adults. The health survey of the affected households revealed that high concentration of fluoride for extended time period is causing adverse health effects such as skin lesions, discoloration, cardiovascular disorders, dental and skeletal fluorosis. Therefore, there is a need to develop workable strategies to provide fluoride-safe drinking water to the affected communities.


Aquifer Community health Fluorosis Groundwater 



The study is the outcome of Master’s thesis in environmental sciences carried out under the supervision of the corresponding author. Authors are highly grateful to Mr. Anil Sindoor and Mr. Bhanu for their help in sampling and field visits. Laboratory facilities provided at the Department of Environmental Science, BBAU, Lucknow, are greatly acknowledged.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. Ali S, Kumari M, Gupta SK, Sinha A, Mishra BK (2017) Investigation and mapping of fluoride-endemic areas and associated health risk—a case study of Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. Hum Ecol Risk Assess Int J 23(3):590–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amini M, Mueller K, Abbaspour KC, Rosenberg T, Afyuni M, Møller KN et al (2008) Statistical modeling of global geogenic fluoride contamination in groundwaters. Environ Sci Technol 42(10):3662–3668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Annadurai ST, Rengasamy JK, Sundaram R, Munusamy AP (2014) Incidence and effects of fluoride in Indian natural ecosystem: a review. Adv Appl Sci Res 5(2):173–185Google Scholar
  4. Aoba T, Fejerskov O (2002) Dental fluorosis: chemistry and biology. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 13(2):155–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arif M, Hussain J, Hussain I, Kumar S (2013) An assessment of fluoride concentration in groundwater and risk on health of north part of Nagaur district, Rajasthan, India. World Appl Sci J 24(2):146–153Google Scholar
  6. Borah J, Saikia D (2011) Estimation of the concentration of fluoride in the ground water of Tinsukia Master Plan Area of the Tinsukia District. Sch Res Libr 3(3):202–206Google Scholar
  7. Brindha K, Rajesh R, Murugan R, Elango L (2011) Fluoride contamination in groundwater in parts of Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Environ Monit Assess 172(1–4):481–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Central Ground Water Board, India (2014) Ground Water Brochure of Fatehpur District, U.P.
  9. Chandio TA, Khan MN, Sarwar A (2015) Fluoride estimation and its correlation with other physicochemical parameters in drinking water of some areas of Balochistan, Pakistan. Environ Monit Assess 187(8):531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dhar V, Bhatnagar M (2009) Physiology and toxicity of fluoride. Indian J Dent Res 20(3):350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fluoride India: Fluoride Knowledge and Action Network ( (2016)
  12. Gopalakrishnan SB, Viswanathan G, Ilango SS (2012) Prevalence of fluorosis and identification of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli district, Tamil Nadu, South India. Appl Water Sci 2(4):235–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hussain I, Arif M, Hussain J (2012) Fluoride contamination in drinking water in rural habitations of Central Rajasthan, India. Environ Monit Assess 184(8):5151–5158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jha SK, Nayak AK, Sharma YK (2009) Fluoride occurrence and assessment of exposure dose of fluoride in shallow aquifers of Makur, Unnao district Uttar Pradesh, India. Environ Monit Assess 156(1–4):561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jha SK, Nayak AK, Sharma YK (2010) Potential fluoride contamination in the drinking water of Marks Nagar, Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Environ Geochem Health 32(3):217–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Karunakaran C (1974) Fluorine-bearing minerals in India—their geology, mineralogy, and geochemistry. Indian Academy of Geological Science. In: Proceedings, symposium on fluorosis, Osmania University, Hyderabad, pp 3–18Google Scholar
  17. Khatri N, Tyagi S (2015) Influences of natural and anthropogenic factors on surface and groundwater quality in rural and urban areas. Front Life Sci 8(1):23–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kumar M, Puri A (2012) A review of permissible limits of drinking water. Indian J Occup Environ Med 16(1):40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Martínez-Acuña MI, Mercado-Reyes M, Alegría-Torres JA, Mejía-Saavedra JJ (2016) Preliminary human health risk assessment of arsenic and fluoride in tap water from Zacatecas, México. Environ Monit Assess 188(8):476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ministry of water resources, River development and Ganga Rejuvenation Govt. of India (2015)Google Scholar
  21. National Health Portal of India, Fluorosis (2014)Google Scholar
  22. Pillai KS, Stanley VA (2002) Implications of fluoride—an endless uncertainty. J Environ Biol 23(1):81–87Google Scholar
  23. Rai V, Singh M (2014) Fluoride concentration in drinking water of Lucknow city, India: a case study. Hydrol Curr Res 5:181Google Scholar
  24. Raj D, Shaji E (2017) Fluoride contamination in groundwater resources of Alleppey, southern India. Geosci Front 8(1):117–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rao NS, Devadas DJ (2003) Fluoride incidence in groundwater in an area of Peninsular India. Environ Geol 45(2):243–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Singh G, Kumari B, Sinam G, Kumar N, Mallick S (2018) Fluoride distribution and contamination in the water, soil and plants continuum and its remedial technologies, an Indian perspective—a review. Environ Pollut 239:95–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sreedevi PD, Ahmed S, Madé B, Ledoux E, Gandolfi JM (2006) Association of hydrogeological factors in temporal variations of fluoride concentration in a crystalline aquifer in India. Environ Geol 50(1):1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Walna B, Kurzyca I, Bednorz E, Kolendowicz L (2013) Fluoride pollution of atmospheric precipitation and its relationship with air circulation and weather patterns (Wielkopolski National Park, Poland). Environ Monit Assess 185(7):5497–5514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wang C, Gao Y, Wang W, Zhao L, Zhang W, Han H, Shi Y, Yu G, Sun D (2012) A national cross-sectional study on effects of fluoride-safe water supply on the prevalence of fluorosis in China. BMJ Open 2(5):e001564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. World Health Organisation (1984) Guidelines for drinking water qualityGoogle Scholar
  31. World Health Organisation (2006) Guidelines for drinking water qualityGoogle Scholar
  32. World Health Organisation (2011) Guidelines for drinking water qualityGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental ScienceBabasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar UniversityLucknowIndia

Personalised recommendations