Experimental and numerical design of renewable-energy-supported advanced biological wastewater treatment plant

  • E. GürtekinEmail author


Nowadays biological wastewater treatment processes are more applied than other physical and chemical methods to the treatment of domestic wastewater. By the way, energy consumption plays an important role in wastewater treatment plants. In order to realize energy efficiency, the initial investment costs as well as the operating costs should be taken into account for new installations. Energy consumption can be saved, and the energy can be generated with the choice of mechanical equipment in the wastewater treatment plants, the optimum system design, the use of the organic content of the wastewater, supporting of renewable energy sources in the existing treatment area. In this study, an advanced biological wastewater treatment plant is selected in the city of Malatya. This plant is modeled by SASSPro numerical program. Then, the obtained numerical and experimental results are discussed and compared. These results show that numerical results are in good agreement with measurement one. Also, in order to meet the energy requirement of the proposed plant, renewable-energy-supported advanced biological wastewater treatment plant is modeled with Polysun software. A 2.85-MW photovoltaic panel, 107 thermal solar panels and 99-m-deep geothermal heat pump were used in this modeling. As a result of the modeling, annual electricity of 5,750,000 kWh and 7,300,300 L hot water at 50 °C are obtained. Hot water can be used for heating the wastewater and can be used for drying purposes.


Wastewater SASSPro Renewable energy Treatment 

List of symbols


Solids retention time or sludge age (Vp/Qw)


Mean biomass temperature (°C)


Mean influent flow rate (ML/day)


Total COD in the influent (mg/L)


Influent alkalinity in the form CaCO3 (mg/L)


Waste sludge flow, wasting from aerator mixed liquor (ML/day)


Unbiodegradable soluble COD in the effluent (mg/L)


Effluent nitrogen in the form of ammonia was Nae (mg/L)


Total phosphorus in the effluent (mg/L)


Heterotrophic polyphosphate-accumulating organisms


Food-to-microorganism loading (mgBOD/mgVSS)


Volatile suspended solids component of the sludge mass (mg/L)


Total volume of anoxic zone (ML)


pH of the biomass (typically measured in aeration zone)


Total Kjeldahl nitrogen (organic + ammonia nitrogen) in the influent (mg/L)


Total phosphorus in the influent (mg/L)


Stirred sludge volume index (mL/gSS)


Chemical oxygen demand


Total process volume of the plant (ML)




Total Kjeldahl nitrogen (organic + ammonia nitrogen) in the effluent (mg/L)


Effluent nitrogen in the form of nitrate was Nne (mg/L)


Potentially enhanced P storage by PAOs (beyond that for PAO growth only) (mg/L)


Effluent alkalinity in the form CaCO3 (mg/L)


Biochemical oxygen demand


Total volume of anaerobic zone (ML)


Total volume of aerobic zone (ML)





I would like to thank editors and anonymous reviewers for their suggestions to improve the paper.


  1. Foladori P, Vaccari M, Vitali F (2015) Energy audit in small wastewater treatment plants: methodology, energy consumption indicators, and lessons learned. Water Sci Technol 72(6):2267–2275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. IMC (1999) Istanbul master plan study, İstanbul Water and Sewerage AdministrationGoogle Scholar
  3. Mamais D, Noutsopoulos C, Dimopoulou A, Stasinakis A, Lekkas TD (2015) Wastewater treatment process impact on energy savings and greenhouse gas emissions. Water Sci Technol 71(2):303–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Mulkerrins D, Dobson ADW, Colleran E (2004) Parameters affecting biological phosphate removal from wastewaters. Environ Int 30:249–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ozdemir O (2016) Revision and energy efficiency of Malatya advanced wastewater treatment plant for sustainable operation. Adiyaman Univ J Eng Sci 5:9–20Google Scholar
  6. Ozturk I, Timur H, Koskan U (2005) Principles of wastewater treatment—control of domestic, industrial wastewater treatment and treatment sludge. T.C. Ministry of Environment and Forestry, IstanbulGoogle Scholar
  7. Panepinto D, Fiore S, Zappone M, Genon G, Meucci L (2016) Evaluation of the energy efficiency of a large wastewater treatment plant in Italy. Appl Energy 161:404–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Peng Y, Ge S (2011) Enhanced nutrient removal in three types of step feeding process from municipal wastewater. Biores Technol 102(11):6405–6413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ryu HD, Kim D, Lim HE, Lee S (2008) Nitrogen removal from low carbon-to-nitrogen wastewater in four-stage biological aerated filter system. Process Biochem 43:729–735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. SAIC (Science Applications International Corporation) (2006) Focus on energy. Water and wastewater energy best practice guidebook. Prepared for Wisconsin Department of Administration by the Focus on Energy Program, Madison, WIGoogle Scholar
  11. Sarkar U, Dasgupta D, Bhattacharya T, Pal S, Chakroborty T (2010) Dynamic simulation of activated sludge based wastewater treatment processes: case studies with Titagarh Sewage Treatment Plant, India. Desalination 252(1–3):120–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Sato N, Okubo T, Onodera T, Agrawal LK (2007) Economic evaluation of sewage treatment processes in India. J Environ Manage 84:447–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Sommariva C, Converti A, Del Borghi M (1996) Increase in phosphate removal from wastewater by alternating aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Desalination 108:255–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Trapote A, Albaladejo A, Simón P (2014) Energy consumption in an urban wastewater treatment plant: the case of Murcia Region (Spain). Civ Eng Environ Syst 31(4):304–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Turkmenler H (2017) Energy efficiency in wastewater treatment plants. J Polytech 20(2):495–502Google Scholar
  16. Uggetti E, Hughes-Riley T, Morris RH, Newton MI, Trabi CL, Hawes P, Puigagut J, García J (2015) Intermittent aeration to improve wastewater treatment efficiency in pilot-scale constructed wetland. Sci Total Environ 2015(559):212–217Google Scholar
  17. Usharani K, Lakshmanaperumalsamy P (2010) Bio-treatment of phosphate from synthetic wastewater using Pseudomonas sp YLW-7. J Appl Sci Environ Manage 14(2):75–80Google Scholar
  18. Villaverde S (2004) Recent developments on biological nutrient removal processes for wastewater treatment. Environ Sci Biotechnol 3:171–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental EngineeringFirat UniversityElazigTurkey

Personalised recommendations