The main aim of this study was to evaluate the heavy metals in Mehran University water treatment plant, Jamshoro District, Sindh, Pakistan. The water samples were collected throughout the year (June 2016 to May 2017) from different locations such as raw water source (Kalri Baghar feeder), Mehran University water treatment plant and water distribution network from water treatment plant to the departments of Mehran University. The water samples from different locations were coded as S1 (Kalri Baghar Feeder/intake raw water source), from Mehran University water treatment plant (S2–S4), i.e., S2 (sedimentation tank outlet), S3 (post-filtration), S4 (Mehran University storage tank) and at last from Mehran University department, i.e., S5 (institute of water resources management), respectively. The atomic absorption spectrometry technique was used to evaluate the levels of heavy metals in water samples from different locations. The ranges of mean concentrations were analyzed from different locations (S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5) in Mehran water treatment plant such as for zinc from 60.368 to 137.6 µg/L, for copper from 1.82 to 4.08 µg/L, for chromium from 1.709 to 3.448 µg/L, for arsenic from 3.08 to 4.29 µg/L, for mercury and cadmium were observed under below detection limit. The detection limit of these metals was observed at 1, 0.5, 0.2, 2, 2 and 0.05 µg/L for zinc, copper, chromium, arsenic, cadmium and mercury, respectively. The recovery of the spike analyte was observed from 95 to 103% in different locations. The observed concentrations of selected heavy metals are under World Health Organization and National Environmental Quality Standards guideline limits.
Heavy metals Atomic absorption spectrometry Kalri Baghar Canal Mehran University water treatment plant Jamshoro District
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
The authors would like to thank US–Pakistan centers for advanced studies in water (USPCAS-W), Mehran University of Engineering and Technology (MUET) Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan, for the financial supports and the provision of an excellent environment for research. The work reported under “Mehran clean water” project was funded by USPCAS-W, MUET, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan and University of UTAH, UTAH, USA. I would like to express my profound sense of reverence to Prof. Dr. Steven. Burian, Prof. Dr. Tariq Banuri (Chairman, HEC Pakistan) and Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aslam Chaudhry for their motivation and untiring help during the training of visiting student exchange program in University of UTAH, USA.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors have declared that there is no conflict of interests. S.S.H., R.B.M., Z.A. are employees of USPCAS-W, MUET, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan. Azizullah is a graduate student of USPCAS-W, MUET. A.K.A is contracted employee of QUEST, Nawabshah, Sindh, Pakistan. N.B.J. is a senior scientific officer in PCSIR laboratory, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. R.Z. is laboratory in charge of AAS in Environmental Engineering Department, MUET, Jamshoro, Sindh. M.Y.T. is employee of Dr. M. A. Kazi Institute of Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh.
Barrera PB, Pineiro AM, Pineiro JM, Barrera AB (1997) Slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of lead, cadmium and manganese in human hair samples using rapid atomizer programs. J Anal Atom Spectrom 12:301–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fernández ZH, Rojas LAV, Álvarez AM, Álvarez JRE, Júnior JADS, González IP, González MR, Macias NA, Sánchez DL, Torres DH (2015) Application of cold vapor-atomic absorption (CVAAS) spectrophotometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry methods for cadmium, mercury and lead analyses of fish samples. Validation of the method of CVAAS. Food Control 48:37–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.05.056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Friberg L, Vahter M (1983) Assessment of exposure to lead and cadmium through biological monitoring: results of a UNEP WHO global study. Environ Res 30:95–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haseena M, Malik MF, Javed A, Arshad S, Asif N, Zulfiqar S, Hanif J (2017) Water pollution and human health. Environ Risk Assess Remed 1(3):16–19Google Scholar
Hassan SS, Panhwar P, Nafady A, Al-Enizi AM, Sherazi STH, Kalhoro MS, Arain M, Shah MR, Talpur MY (2017) Fabrication of highly sensitive and selective electrochemical sensors for detection of paracetamol by using piroxicam stabilized gold nanoparticles. J Electrochem Soc 164(9):B427–B434. https://doi.org/10.1149/2.0811709jesCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Naeemullah, Kazi TG, Afridi HI, Shah F, Arain SS, Brahman KD, Ali J, Arain MS (2016) Simultaneous determination of silver and other heavy metals in aquatic environment receiving wastewater from industrial area, applying an enrichment method. Arab J Chem 9:105–113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2014.10.027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rao DL (2014) Heavy metals causing toxicity in humans, animals and environment. J Chem Pharm Sci 0974–2115:172–174Google Scholar
Saleem HM, Eweida EA, Farag A (2000) Heavy metals in drinking water and their environmental impact on human health. In: International conference environmental hazards mitigation, Cairo University, Egypt, pp 542–556Google Scholar
UNEP (1984; 1992) The international register of potentially toxic chemicals of UNEP included cadmium together with lead and mercury in its listing of environmentally dangerous chemical substances and processes of global significanceGoogle Scholar