Advertisement

Comparative study of legal frameworks associated with plant pesticides in Iran and Europe

  • M. Mobinifar
  • N. GhasemiEmail author
  • R. Arjmandi
Review
  • 6 Downloads

Abstract

Various methods have been used to combat pests. A closer look can uncover the fact that any action taken has somehow interfered in the environment and human health. The undesirable fact becomes more serious when most countries use pesticides as a main solution for pest control. In the most optimistic view, only 10% of the pesticides reach the target and the rest enter the environment which is the living place of thousands of living organisms including man. This has caused many countries in the world and the international community to pay a particular attention to pesticides and the certain rules and regulations stipulated for their management. Upon arrival of pesticides in the country, Iran has developed the laws and regulations relevant to organization and systematic use of pesticides. This study presents a history of laws and regulations relevant to plants protection at first. Then, it describes other laws and regulations related to pesticides and expresses the importance of existing laws and regulations. Finally, it explains the laws and regulations related to the debate in Europe.

Keywords

Pesticides Environment law The case study of Iran and Europe Commitments Challenges and opportunities 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to extent their sincere gratitude to all who supported this work.

References

  1. Directive (2009) 127/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 October 2009, pp 1–3Google Scholar
  2. Directive (2009) 128/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 October 2009, pp 7–8Google Scholar
  3. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2014) Guidance on the assessment of exposure of operators ‘workers’ residents and bystanders in risk assessment for plant protection products 1. European Food Safety Authority 2, 3, Parma, pp 8–10Google Scholar
  4. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2018) Published on 04 April 2012, replaces the earlier version published on 08 November 2011Google Scholar
  5. Eurostat. Statistic Explained (2018) Agri-environmental indicator—consumption of pesticides, Agriculture, forestry and fishery statistics—2016 edn, 11–18Google Scholar
  6. Fallah A, Khosravi V, Oskou T, Rostami M (2012) Reducing pesticide use by using silicate fertilizers in paddy fields. In: Twelfth congress for agronomy and plant breeding sciences, Iran, Karaj, Islamic Azad University of Karaj, pp 1–4. http://www.civilica.com/Paper-NABATAT12-NABATAT12_0026.html
  7. Hauizman W, Helpop EA, Lothar G, Deena S (2010) Environment law. Translated by Muhammad Hasan Habibi, Second volume. Tehran University Press, Tehran, pp 173–178Google Scholar
  8. Implementing Regulation (EC) (2009) No. 1107 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the list of approved active substances (text with EEA relevance), pp 1–4Google Scholar
  9. Kohansal M, Firooz Zare A (2008) Determining cropping pattern corresponding sustainable agriculture by using multi-objective fuzzy fractional programming: a case of Piranshahar City. North Khorasan province. Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development 16(62):25–27Google Scholar
  10. Labor Relations Department (2016) Technical and health protective procedure in agriculture, www.crtosh.mcls.gov.ir, pp 24–27
  11. Laurent Oger (2010) Directive 2009/128/EC on sustainable use of pesticides and its Implementation. CEUREG Forum XIV, pp 11–13Google Scholar
  12. Legal and Parliamentary Affairs Department (1999) Regulations implementing sanitary control and supervision of toxins and chemicals www.hvm.ir, retrieved 2016, 201, p 29468
  13. Mashhadi A (2009) Documents Fundamental International Environmental Law, Qom University Publication, vol 1, pp 20–25Google Scholar
  14. Ministry of Agriculture (2016) Sovereign duties and tenure at Plant Protection Organization. www.maj.ir, pp 1–4
  15. Mobini Far M (2007) Legal-environmental status of pollution resulting from the use of plant pesticides and chemical fertilizers in Golestan Province with legal solutions. M.A. thesis, Islamic Azad University, Science, and Research Branch, pp 49–57Google Scholar
  16. Momeni M (2011) The principles of the WTO sanitary and phytosanitary measures. M.A. thesis, Payam Noor University, South Tehran, pp 92–100Google Scholar
  17. Negin Nodehi A, Mousa Akbarlou B, Adel Sepehry C, Hasan Vahid D (2014) Effects of Topographical Factors on Distribution of Plant Communities in Semi-Steppe Grasslands (Case Study: Ghorkhud Region, Northern Khorasan Province, Iran). Journal of Rangeland Science 4(4):298–305Google Scholar
  18. Parliament Research Center (2004) Economic, social, and cultural development plan of the Islamic Republic of Iran. http://rc.majlis.ir. Retrieved 2016, p 94202
  19. Parliament Research Center (2006) Regulations of the Plant Protection Act adopted by the Cabinet. http://rc.majlis.ir. Retrieved 2016, p 126046
  20. Parliament Research Center (2008) Amending article 43 of Regulations of the Plant Protection Act adopted by the Cabinet. http://rc.majlis.ir. Retrieved 2016, p 134524
  21. Parliament Research Center (2010) International Plant Protection Convention. http://rc.majlis.ir. Retrieved 2016, p 790218
  22. Pip Summary of Eu Pesticide Regulations (2011) Updated June http://ec.europa.eu/food/plant/protection/evaluation/index_en.htm, pp 1–4
  23. Pourhashemi SA, Tayebi S, Davanloo M (2015) Explaining the principle of notification in Rotterdam convention on the prior informed consent procedure for certain hazardous chemicals and pesticides in international trade. Under print, pp 8–12Google Scholar
  24. Presidency (2010) Collection the fifth five-year development program. The Presidential Press, Washington, pp 155–158Google Scholar
  25. Rahmati J (2015) A comparative study of laws and regulations related to pesticides: a case study of Iran and Europe. MA thesis, Department of Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch of Tehran Azad University, pp 2–5, 40–42, 56–58, 74–77Google Scholar
  26. Regulation (EC) (2009) No. 1107 Of The European Parliament and of the Council of 21 October 2009 (concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market and repealing Council Directives 79/117/EEC and 91/414/EEC), pp 128–129Google Scholar
  27. Rules and Regulations (2010) Protective regulations for working with Pesticides in workshops. J Saf Message 10–15Google Scholar
  28. Rules and regulations of the municipality (2009) Tehran Municipality Department of Developing Laws and Regulations. Nashre Shahr Publications, pp 121–128Google Scholar
  29. Saed N, Tila P (2012). Collection of laws and regulations of environmental protection in Iran. Khorsandi Publication, pp 316–323, 28–32Google Scholar
  30. Soil and Water Research Institute (2010). Implementing Regulations and instructions on how to evaluate the biological modes, www.swri.ir, retrieved 2016
  31. Stark G (2011) EU pesticide legislation—an update, health and safety executive. Chemicals Regulation Directorate, Mallard House, Kings Pool, York, pp 2–4Google Scholar
  32. Talaei F, Razm Khah A (2012) Analysis of the impact and importance of international law of sustainable agriculture in the protection of biodiversity of plant species. Institute for Sustainable Development and Environment, www.cenesta.org, pp 2–12
  33. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2006). Facilitators’ FFS manual. Regional Integrated Pest Management. Programme in the Near East. Part I: A training resource manual on planning, organizing, implementing, and evaluating Farmer Field Schools for Integrated Pest Management in the Near East. Translated by Hosein Heidari. Barge Zeitoon Publication, pp 4–16Google Scholar
  34. Umbrella Science (2016) Islamic Penal Law Assistant. Twenty-Third Publications, Science Umbrella Publications, pp 656–657Google Scholar
  35. Valizadeh A, Mirshekari F, Mirzaei M (2009) Integrated pest management role to advance sustainable agriculture. National conference on the soil water and plant sciences, University of Dezful, pp 6–10Google Scholar
  36. Workplace Health Center (2010) General instruction and manuals for dangerous chemicals. Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Thran, pp 300–379Google Scholar
  37. World Health Organization (2014) The international code of conduct on pesticide management, The 77 international code, pp 39–40Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental Law, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment​, Science and Research BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Faculty of Public and Criminal LawUniversity of Judicial Sciences and Administrative ServicesTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment​, Science and Research BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran

Personalised recommendations