A designed experimental approach for photocatalytic degradation of paraquat using α-Fe2O3@MIL-101(Cr)@TiO2 based on metal–organic framework

  • A. Khodkar
  • S. M. KhezriEmail author
  • A. R. Pendashteh
  • S. Khoramnejadian
  • L. Mamani
Original Paper


A new magnetic α-Fe2O3@MIL-101(Cr)@TiO2 photocatalyst was successfully prepared. The structural and morphological properties of synthesized photocatalyst were studied by FTIR, XRD, SEM, EDX and BET analysis. Optimizing of the removal of paraquat herbicide from aqueous solution was investigated by response surface methodology based on Box–Behnken design. The interactive effects of four parameters including the dosage of catalyst, pH, the initial concentration of paraquat and contact time, all have been studied on the photocatalytic degradation and COD reduction. A quadratic polynomial model was adjusted to the data with an R2 of 0.89 for photocatalytic degradation and R2 of 0.92 for COD reduction, respectively. The photocatalytic degradation and COD reduction were obtained 87.46% and 90.09% at the optimal conditions, after 45 min using 0.2 g L−1 of α-Fe2O3@MIL-101(Cr)@TiO2, pH 7 and the concentration of paraquat 20 mg L−1. The kinetics of paraquat adsorption on the surface of α-Fe2O3@MIL-101(Cr)@TiO2 photocatalyst were obtained by the pseudo-second-order and parabolic diffusion models.


Paraquat Box–Behnken design Photodegradation Chemical oxygen demand 



We gratefully acknowledge the staffs of the Research Council of Islamic Azad University of Damavand for their collaboration in this study.


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© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Khodkar
    • 1
  • S. M. Khezri
    • 2
    Email author
  • A. R. Pendashteh
    • 3
    • 4
  • S. Khoramnejadian
    • 1
  • L. Mamani
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of the Environment, Damavand BranchIslamic Azad UniversityDamavandIran
  2. 2.Faculty of Environment and Energy, Tehran Science and Research BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  3. 3.The Caspian Sea Basin Research CenterUniversity of GuilanRashtIran
  4. 4.Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of GuilanRashtIran

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