Optimization of process variables by the application of response surface methodology for dye removal using nanoscale zero-valent iron

  • S. ShojaeiEmail author
  • S. Shojaei
Original Paper


The study investigated the degradation and removal of Acid Red 114 (AR-114) and Basic Blue 41 (BB-41) as a model of azo dyes of aqueous solutions by using nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI). Both the size and the surface morphology of NZVI particles were specified by XRD and SEM techniques. The removals of AR-114 and BB-41 were studied at different experimental conditions, including catalyst amount, dye concentration, solution pH and the contact time. The removal parameters were modeled by response surface methodology. Given the low P value (< 0.0001), high F value (more than 85 for both dyes), R2 = 98.76% and Adj-R2 = 97.61% for AR-114 and R2 = 99.50% and Adj-R2 = 99.04% for BB-41 and nonsignificant lack of fit for both dyes. Given the ANOVA results, there is a positive relationship between the experimental and predicted values of the response. The results indicated that NZVI particles had removed more than 94% of both dyes under the optimum operational conditions. The optimum catalyst amount, dye concentration, pH of the solution and contact time were found to be 0.40 g, 4.00 mgL−1, 5.00 and 106.00 s, respectively, for AR-114 and those for BB-41 were 0.80 g, 9.00 mgL−1, 9.00 and 205.00 s, respectively.


Response surface methodology Central composite design Zero-valent iron nanoparticle Dye removal Azo dyes 



The authors are grateful to University of Payame Noor, for kind support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict interest.


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Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Young Researchers and Elite Club, Zahedan BranchIslamic Azad UniversityZahedanIran

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