Spatial contamination and health risks of heavy metal(loid)s in surface soils from a petrochemical complex in the north-eastern region of Algeria
- 14 Downloads
The spatial distribution patterns, origins and environmental and health risks of metal trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) have been evaluated through spiking and analysis of 84 soil samples in the region of Arzew (Algeria). This city has one of the biggest petroleum harbours of Algeria and in the same platform several industries, coexisting with residential and agricultural areas. The mean concentration of all the metals studied exceeds their corresponding background levels and/or exceeds the ecological predicted no effect concentration values. The geo-accumulation and the potential ecological risk indices indicate a low to moderate risk for As, Co, Cu, Ni and Zn and a moderate to considerable risk for Cr and Pb. According to the health risk assessment results, the carcinogenic risks due to Cr exceed the acceptable level in all the functional areas, and when considering combined effects of metals, the hazard index obtained shows a high potential carcinogenic risk to the local children.
KeywordsHeavy metal Spatial distribution Pollution assessment Health impact Urban soil
The funding of this study primarily originated from the PROFAS B + Research Program of the French Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- AFNOR (Agence Française de NORmalisation) (1996) Qualité des sols Recueil de normes Françaises 1996. AFNOR, ParisGoogle Scholar
- Barraza F, Maurice L, Uzu G, Becerra S, López F, Ochoa-Herrera V, Ruales J, Schreck E (2018) Distribution, contents and health risk assessment of metal(loid)s in small-scale farms in the Ecuadorian Amazon: an insight into impacts of oil activities. Sci Total Environ 622–623:106–120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.11.24 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Broadway A, Cave MR, Wragg J, Fordyce FM, Bewley RJF, Graham MC, Ngwenya BT, Farmer JG (2010) Determination of the bioaccessibility of chromium in Glasgow soil and the implications for human health risk assessment. Sci Total Environ 409:267–277. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.09.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cao Z, Wang M, Chen Q, Zhang Y, Dong W, Yang T, Yan G, Zhang X, Pi Y, Xi B, Bu Q (2018) Preliminary assessment on exposure of four typical populations to potentially toxic metals by means of skin wipes under the influence of haze pollution. Sci Total Environ 613–614:886–893. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.181 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- CNEMC (China National Environmental Monitoring Center (1990) Background concentrations of elements in soils of China. Chinese Environment Science Press, Beijing (in Chinese) Google Scholar
- Doumergue F, Ficheur E (1908) Carte géologique de l’Algérie 1/50 000, feuille Oran (1ère éd.)Google Scholar
- Kampeerawipakorn O, Navasumrit P, Settachana D, Promvijit J, Hunsonti P, Parnlob V, Nakngama N, Choonvisase S, Chotikapukana P, Chanchaeamsai S, Ruchirawat M (2017) Health risk evaluation in a population exposed to chemical releases from a petrochemical complex in Thailand. Environ Res 152:207–213. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2016.10.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kossowska B, Dudka I, Gancarz R, Antonowicz-Juchniewicz J (2013) Application of classic epidemiological studies and proteomics in research of occupational and environmental exposure to lead, cadmium and arsenic. Int J Hyg Environ Health 216:1–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2012.03.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mousavia SM, Motesharezadeh B, Hosseini HM, Alikhania H, Zolfaghari AA (2018) Root-induced changes of Zn and Pb dynamics in the rhizosphere of sunflower with different plant growth promoting treatments in a heavily contaminated soil. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 147:206–216. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.08.045 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Reimann C, Fabian K, Birke M, Filzmoser P, Demetriades A, Négrel P, Oorts K, Matschullat J, de Caritat P, Albanese S, Anderson M, Baritz R, Batista MJ, Bel-Ian A, Cicchella D, De Vivo B, De Vos W, Dinelli E, Ďuriš M, Dusza-Dobek A, Eggen OA, Eklund M, Ernsten V, Flight DMA, Forrester S, Fügedi U, Gilucis A, Gosar M, Gregorauskiene V, De Groot W, Gulan A, Halamić J, Haslinger E, Hayoz P, Hoogewerff J, Hrvatovic H, Husnjak S, Jähne-Klingberg F, Janik L, Jordan G, Kaminari M, Kirby J, Klos V, Kwećko P, Kuti L, Ladenberger A, Lima A, Locutura J, Lucivjansky P, Mann A, Mackovych D, McLaughlin M, Malyuk BI, Maquil R, Meuli RG, Mol G, O'Connor P, Ottesen RT, Pasnieczna A, Petersell V, Pfleiderer S, Poňavič M, Prazeres C, Radusinović S, Rauch U, Salpeteur I, Scanlon R, Schedl A, Scheib A, Schoeters I, Šefčik P, Sellersjö E, Slaninka I, Soriano-Disla JM, Šorša A, Svrkota R, Stafilov T, Tarvainen T, Tendavilov V, Valera P, Verougstraete V, Vidojević D, Zissimos A, Zomeni Z, Sadeghi M (2018) GEMAS: Establishing geochemical background and threshold for 53 chemical elements in European agricultural soil. Appl Geochem 88:302–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Solgi E, Sheikhzadeha H, Solgi M (2018) Role of irrigation water, inorganic and organic fertilizers in soil and crop contamination by potentially hazardous elements in intensive farming systems: case study from Moghan agro-industry, Iran. J Geochem Explor 185:74–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gexplo.2017.11.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (1989) Risk assessment guidance for superfund volume 1: human health evaluation manual (part A) office of emergency and remedial response; Washington, DC; EPA/540/1-89/002Google Scholar
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2011) Exposure Factors handbook: 2011 edition. National Center for Environmental Assessment, Washington, DC; EPA/600/R-09/052F. Available from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA. http://www.epa.gov/ncea/efh
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2014) Child-specific exposure scenarios examples. National Center for Environmental Assessment, Washington, DC; EPA/600/R-14/217F. Available from the National Information Service, Springfield, VA. http://www.epa.gov/ncaa