Coal fly ash and steel slag valorisation throughout a vitrification process
- 136 Downloads
The aim of this research was to evaluate the feasibility of using the vitrification process as an alternative solution to the disposal of a coal fly ash and metallurgical slags in landfills. The starting wastes were characterised in terms of chemical, granulometric, mineralogical, and microstructural analysis. A selected batch composition composed by 58.5% fly ash, 31.5% metallurgical slag and 10.0 Na2O% (wt%) was melted at 1450 °C and poured to obtain monolithic glass samples. The environmental behaviour of the starting wastes and the resulting glass was evaluated by standard leaching tests, which shows that vitrification leads to a stabilisation process in which the inorganic components of the wastes are immobilised throughout their incorporation into the glass structure. Moreover, vitrification transforms those hazardous wastes into a new non-hazardous glass. A preliminary study shows that the new glass is suitable for developing glass–ceramic tiles appropriate for floor pavement and wall covering.
KeywordsWaste disposal Recycling Leaching test Glass Glass–ceramics
The authors thank Mrs. P. Díaz and Mrs. E. Sánchez for their technical assistance. H. R. Guzmán-Carrillo wants to thank CONACyT for scholarship (Grant No. 311363) and to Prof. J. Ma. Rincón from the IETcc-CSIC for his valuable advice.
- 2003/33/EC (2003) Council decision of 19 December 2002 establishing criteria and procedures for the acceptance of waste at landfills pursuant to article 16 of and annex II to directive 1999/31/EC (2203). Off J Eur Communities L11:27–49Google Scholar
- Fernández Navarro JM (2003) El vidrio, 3rd edn. Editorial SCIC, MadridGoogle Scholar
- Karamanov A, Chabbach LM, Karamanova E, Andreola F, Barbieri L, Ranguelov B, Avdeev G, Lancellotti I (2014) Sinter-crystallization in air and inert atmospheres of a glass from pre-treated municipal solid waste bottom ashes. J Non Cryst Solids 389:50–59. doi: 10.1016/jjoncrysol201402009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Martínez-Martínez S, Pérez-Villarejo L, Eliche-Quesada D, Carrasco-Hurtado B, Sánchez-Soto PJ, Angelopoulos GN (2016) Ceramics from clays and by-product from biodiesel production: processing, properties and microstructural characterization. Appl Clay Sci 121:119–126. doi: 10.1016/jday201512003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Paul A (1990) Chemistry of glasses, 2nd edn. Chapman and Hall, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Reuter M, Xiao Y, Boin U (2004) Recycling and environmental issues of metallurgical slags and salt fluxes. In: II international conference on molten slags fluxes and salts. The South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, pp 349–356Google Scholar
- Rodríguez Cuartas R (1984) Theoretical calculation of glass properties: viscosity, thermal and devitrification parameters. Bol Soc Esp Ceram Vidr 23:105–111 (in Spanish) Google Scholar
- Scalet BM, Garcia Muñoz M, Sissa AQ, Roudier S, Delgado Sancho L (2013) Best available techniques (BAT) reference document for the manufacture of glass. Industrial emissions directive 2010/75/EU integrated pollution prevention and controlGoogle Scholar