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Equilibrium studies on removal of lead (II) ions from aqueous solution by adsorption using modified red mud

  • S. Lakshmi Narayanan
  • G. Venkatesan
  • I. Vetha Potheher
Original Paper
  • 149 Downloads

Abstract

In the present experimental study, solid waste was used as an adsorbent and the effectiveness of the adsorbent was increased by novel treatment methods. Red mud, acid-treated activated red mud and iron oxide-coated acid-treated activated red mud were used for the removal of lead (II). The structural and functional groups were identified to confirm the removal of lead (II) by powder X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. The enhancement of surface area was confirmed by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis. Batch adsorption experiment was also conducted, and various parameters such as the effect of adsorbent dosage, pH, contact time and initial ion concentration were analyzed and reported. Adsorption equilibrium data were investigated using Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm models with three parameters, and the rate of reaction was examined through kinetic models. The results indicate that in particular a novel modified form of red mud, namely iron oxide-coated acid-treated activated red mud was well fitted in lead (II) removal compared with reported adsorbents. The Langmuir isotherm shows that the maximum adsorption of adsorbate per gram was greater than other adsorbents (27.02 mg/g). In Freundlich isotherm, the Freundlich constant n values lie between 1 and 10 indicate the favorable adsorption. The calculated n values for normal red mud, acid-treated activated red mud and iron oxide-coated acid-treated activated red mud were found to be 1.9, 2.1 and 2.0 respectively. The correlation coefficient value was higher and the rate of reaction follows the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

Keywords

Batch studies Heavy metal Isotherm Iron oxide Kinetic models 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors sincerely thank to TEQIP-II for providing laboratory facilities and financial support to carry out the research work. Also the corresponding authors acknowledge the TEQIP- II for the seed money to carry out the research work.

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Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Lakshmi Narayanan
    • 1
  • G. Venkatesan
    • 1
  • I. Vetha Potheher
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Civil Engineering, University College of EngineeringBharathidasan Institute of Technology (BIT) Campus, Anna UniversityTiruchirappalliIndia
  2. 2.Department of Physics, University College of EngineeringBharathidasan Institute of Technology (BIT) Campus, Anna UniversityTiruchirappalliIndia

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