Equilibrium studies on removal of lead (II) ions from aqueous solution by adsorption using modified red mud

  • S. Lakshmi Narayanan
  • G. Venkatesan
  • I. Vetha PotheherEmail author
Original Paper


In the present experimental study, solid waste was used as an adsorbent and the effectiveness of the adsorbent was increased by novel treatment methods. Red mud, acid-treated activated red mud and iron oxide-coated acid-treated activated red mud were used for the removal of lead (II). The structural and functional groups were identified to confirm the removal of lead (II) by powder X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. The enhancement of surface area was confirmed by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis. Batch adsorption experiment was also conducted, and various parameters such as the effect of adsorbent dosage, pH, contact time and initial ion concentration were analyzed and reported. Adsorption equilibrium data were investigated using Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm models with three parameters, and the rate of reaction was examined through kinetic models. The results indicate that in particular a novel modified form of red mud, namely iron oxide-coated acid-treated activated red mud was well fitted in lead (II) removal compared with reported adsorbents. The Langmuir isotherm shows that the maximum adsorption of adsorbate per gram was greater than other adsorbents (27.02 mg/g). In Freundlich isotherm, the Freundlich constant n values lie between 1 and 10 indicate the favorable adsorption. The calculated n values for normal red mud, acid-treated activated red mud and iron oxide-coated acid-treated activated red mud were found to be 1.9, 2.1 and 2.0 respectively. The correlation coefficient value was higher and the rate of reaction follows the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.


Batch studies Heavy metal Isotherm Iron oxide Kinetic models 



The authors sincerely thank to TEQIP-II for providing laboratory facilities and financial support to carry out the research work. Also the corresponding authors acknowledge the TEQIP- II for the seed money to carry out the research work.


  1. Abdel-Ghani NT, Hefny M, El-Changhaby GAF (2007) Removal of lead from aqueous solution using low cost abundantly available adsorbents. Int J Environ Sci Technol 4(1):67–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ackacha MA (2013) Removal of Pb (II) from Aqueous Solution by Portulaca oleracea leaves: kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies. Am J Anal Chem 4:27–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akl MA, Abou-Elanwar AM (2015) Adsorption studies of cd (II) from water by acid modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Nanomed Nanotech. doi: 10.4172/2157-7439.1000327 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Awwad AM, Salem NM (2013) Biosorption of copper (II) and lead (II) ions from aqueous solutions by modified loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) leaves (MLL). J Chem Eng Mater Sci 3(1):7–17Google Scholar
  5. Beetseh CI, Ocheje A (2013) Analysis of lead, zinc, chromium and iron in the major dump site on north bank mechanic village in makurdi metropolis benue state. Chem Mater Res 3:1–8Google Scholar
  6. Bhatnagar A, Jain AK, Minocha AK, Singh S (2006) Removal of lead ions from aqueous solutions by different types of industrial waste materials: equilibrium and kinetic studies. Sep Sci Technol 41:1881–1892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bhatnagar A, Vilar VJP, Botelho CMS, Boaventura RAR (2011) A review of the use of red mud as adsorbent for the removal of toxic pollutants from water and wastewater. Environ Technol 32:231–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boujelben N, Bouzid J, Elouear Z (2009) Studies of lead retention from aqueous solutions using iron oxide coated sorbents. Environ Technol 30:737–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chaouch N, Ouahrani MR, Laouini SE (2014) Adsorption of lead (II) from Aqueous solutions onto activated carbon prepared from Algerian dates stones of Phoenix dactylifera L (Ghars variety) by H3PO4 activation. Orient J Chem 30:1317–1322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen F, Wu Q, Lu Q, Xu Y, Yu Y (2015) Synthesis and characterization of bifunctional mesoporous silica absorbent for simultaneous removal of lead and nitrate ions. Sep Purif Tech 151:225–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Egwuatu CI, Umedum NL, Anarado CJO, Eboatu AN (2014) Chicken feather as sequestrant for lead ions in aqueous solution. Int J Modern Anal Sep Sci 3(1):51–66Google Scholar
  12. Eisazadeh A, Eisazadeh H, Kassim KA (2013) Removal of Pb (II) using polyaniline composites and iron oxide coated natural sand and clay from aqueous solution. Synth Met 171:56–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. El-Ashtoukhy ESZ, Amin NK, Abdelwahab O (2008) Removal of lead (II) and copper (II) from aqueous solution using pomegranate peel as a new adsorbent. Desalination 223:162–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. EL-Shishtawy RM, Soltan AM (2002) Bypass kiln dust as adsorbent for anionic dye and heavy metal ions removal from aqueous solution. Toxicol Environ Chem 82:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Farhan AM, Al-Dujaili AH, Awwad AM (2013) Equilibrium and kinetic studies of cadmium (II) and lead (II) ions biosorption onto Ficus Carcia leaves. Int J Ind Chem 4(24):1–8Google Scholar
  16. Foo KY, Hameed BH (2010) Insights into the modeling of adsorption isotherm systems. Chem Eng J 156:2–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ghayedi M, Ghaedi M, Kokhdan SN, Sahraei R, Daneshfar A (2013) Palladium, silver, and zinc oxide nano particles loaded on activated carbon as adsorbent for removal of bromophenol red from aqueous solution. J Ind Eng Chem 19:1209–1217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ghimire K, Inoue K, Makino K, Miyajima T (2002) Adsorptive removal of arsenic using orange juice residue. Sep Sci Technol 37:2785–2799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ghorbhani Y, Oliazadeh M, Shahvedi A (2008) Aluminum solubilisation from red mud by some indigenous fungi in Iran. J Appl Biosci 7:207–213Google Scholar
  20. Gupta VK, Gupta M, Sharma S (2001) Process development for the removal of lead and chromium from aqueous solutions using red mud—an aluminium industry waste Pergamon. Water Res 35:115–1134Google Scholar
  21. Jadav JN, Maind SD, Bhalerao SA (2015) Competitive biosorption of lead (ii) ions from aqueous solutions onto Terminalia captappa L. Leaves as a cost effective biosorbent. Octa J Environ Res 3:67–79Google Scholar
  22. Khan TA, Chaudry SA, Ali I (2015) Equilibrium uptake, isotherm and kinetic studies of Cd (II) adsorption onto iron oxide activated red mud from aqueous solution. J Mol Liq 202:165–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kumar PS, Vincent C, Kirthika K, Kumar KS (2009) Kinetic and equilibrium studies of Pb2+ in removal from aqueous solutions by use of nano-silversol-coated activated carbon. Braz J Chem Eng 27(2):339–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lai C-H, Lo S-L, Lin C-F (1994) Mechanisms of iron oxide coating on to sand surface and its adsorption behaviors for copper. Toxicol Environ Chem 46:107–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lashkenari MS, Davodi B, Eisazadeh H (2011) Removal of arsenic from aqueous solution using polyaniline/risk husk nanocomposite. Korean J Chem Eng 28(7):1532–1538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lim S-F, Lee AYW (2015) Kinetic study on removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution by using soil. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22(13):10144–10158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Liu Y, Naidu R, Ming H (2011) Red mud as an amendment for pollutants in solid and liquid phases. Geoderma 163:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ma M, Lu Y, Chen R, Ma L, Wang Y (2014) Hexavalent chromium removal from water using heat-acid activated red mud. Octa J Appl Sci 4:275–284Google Scholar
  29. Majeed A, Jilani MI, Nadeem R, Hanif MA, Ansari TM (2014) Adsorption of Pb (II) using novel Pleurotus sajor-caju and sunflower hybrid biosorbent. Environ Prot Eng 40:5–15Google Scholar
  30. Masoudi Soltani S, Kazemi Yazdi S, Hosseini S, Bayestie I (2015) Lead removal from aqueous solution using non-modified and nitric acid-modified charred carbon from the pyrolysis of used cigarette filters. Desalt Water Treat 53:126–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Montazer-Rahmati MM, Rabbani P, Abdolali A, Keshtkar AR (2011) Kinetics and equilibrium studies on biosorption of cadmium, lead, and nickel ions from aqueous solutions by intact and chemically modified brown algae. J Hazard Mater 185:401–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Moradinasab S, Behzad M (2016) Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution using Fe3o4 nanoparticles coated with Schiff base ligand. Desalt Water Treat 57:4028–4036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nadaroglu H, Kalkan E (2012) Removal of cobalt (II) ions from aqueous solution by using alternative adsorbent industrial red mud waste material. Int J Phys Sci 7:1386–1394Google Scholar
  34. Nale BY, Kagbu JA, Uzairu A, Nwankwere ET, Saidu S, Musa H (2012) Kinetic and equilibrium studies of the adsorption of lead (II) and nickel (II)ions from aqueous solution on activated carbon prepared from maize cob. Der Chem Sin 3:302–312Google Scholar
  35. Nethaji S, Sivasamy A (2014) Removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution using activated carbon prepared from walnut shell biomass through alkali impregnation process. Clean Technol Environ Policy 16:361–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pushpa TB, Vijayaraghavan J, Bashas SS, Sekaran V, Vijayaraghvan K, Jega J (2015) Investigation on removal of malachite green using EM based compost as adsorbent. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 118:177–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Radjenovi A, Medunic G (2015) Adsorptive removal of Cr (VI) from aqueous solution by carbon black. J Chem Technol Met 50:81–88Google Scholar
  38. Raikar RV, Correa S, Ghorpade P (2015) Removal of lead (II) from aqueous solution using natural and activated rice husk. Int Res J Eng Technol 02:1677–1686Google Scholar
  39. Ren Y, Chen Y, Sun M, Peng H, Huang K (2014) Rapid and efficient removal of cationic dyes by magnetic chitosan adsorbent modified with EDTA. Sep Sci Technol 49:2049–2059CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Resmi G, Thampi SG, Chandrakaran S (2012) Removal of lead from wastewater by adsorption using acid-activated clay. Environ Technol 33:219–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Saka C, Sahin Ö, Demir H, Kahyaoglu M (2011) Removal of lead (II) from aqueous solutions using pre-boiled and formaldehyde- treated onion skins as a new adsorbent. Sep Sci Technol 46:507–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Shalaby TI, Fikrt NM, Mohamed MM, EI Kady MF (2014) Preparation and characterization of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with chitosan for removal of Cd (II) and Cr (VI) from aqueous solution. Water Sci Technol 70:1004–1010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Shekinah P, Kadirvelu K, Kanmani P, Senthilkumar P, Subburam V (2002) Adsorption of lead (II) from aqueous solution by activated carbon prepared from Eichhornia. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 77:458–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Singha AS, Guleria A (2014) Utility of chemically modified agricultural waste okra biomass for removal of toxic heavy metals ions from aqueous solution. Eng Agric Environ Food 8(1):52–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Smiciklas I, Smiljanic S, Peric-Grujic A, Sljivic-Ivanovic M, Mitric M, Antonovic D (2014) Effect of acid treatment on red mud properties with implications on Ni (II) sorption and stability. Chem Eng J 242:27–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Suguna M, Siva Kumar N (2013) Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies on biosorption of lead (II) and cadmium (II) from aqueous solution by polypores biomass. Ind J Chem Technol 20:57–69Google Scholar
  47. Suhasini S, Begum KMMS (2013) Adsorption and desorption studies on the performance of Fe-loaded chitosan carbonized rice husk for metal ion removal. Desalt Water Treat 51:7764–7774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sun P, Lu QY, Yang LZ (2004) The adsorption of lead and copper from aqueous solution on modified peat-resin particles. Environ Geochem Health 26:311–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sushil SS, Batra VS (2012) Modification of red mud by acid treatment and its application for CO removal. J Hazard Mater 203–204:264–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tchounwou PB, Yedjoou CG, Patlolla AK, Sutton DJ (2012) Heavy metals toxicity and the environment. Mol Clin Environ Toxicol 101:133–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tzu TW, Tsuritani T, Sato K (2013) Sorption of Pb (II), Cd (II), and Ni (II) toxic metal ions by alginate-bentonite. J Environ Prot 4:51–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Venkatesan G, Rajagopalan V (2016) Adsorption kinetic models for the removal of Cu (II) from aqueous solution by clay liners in landfills. Int J Environ Sci Technol 13:1123–1130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wang S, Ang HM, Tade MO (2008) Novel application of red mud as coagulant, absorbent and catalyst for environmentally benign process. Chemosphere 72:1621–1635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Yang X, Xu G, Yu H (2016) Removal of lead from aqueous solutions by ferric activated sludge-based adsorbent derived from biological sludge. Arab J Chem. doi: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2016.04.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Yi Z, Yao J, Kuang Y, Chen H, Wang F, Yuan Z (2015) Removal of Pb (II) by adsorption onto Chinese walnut shell activated carbon. Water Sci Technol 72(6):983–989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Yusoff SNM, Kamari A, Putra WP, Ishak CF, Mohamed A, Hashim N, Isa IM (2014) Removal of Cu (II), Pb (II) and Zn (II) ions from aqueous solutions using selected agricultural wastes: adsorption and characterisation studies. J Environ Prot 5:289–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zhang QL, Gao N-Y, Lin YC, Xu B, Le L-S (2007) Removal of arsenic (V) from aqueous solutions using iron-oxide-coated modified activated carbon. Water Environ Feder 79:931–936CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Lakshmi Narayanan
    • 1
  • G. Venkatesan
    • 1
  • I. Vetha Potheher
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Civil Engineering, University College of EngineeringBharathidasan Institute of Technology (BIT) Campus, Anna UniversityTiruchirappalliIndia
  2. 2.Department of Physics, University College of EngineeringBharathidasan Institute of Technology (BIT) Campus, Anna UniversityTiruchirappalliIndia

Personalised recommendations